The big four (Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) agreed
that no single state should be allowed to dominate
The restoration of the Bourbon monarchy and a nonvindictive boundary settlement were designed to keep
East European -In Poland, the szlachta were entirely exempt from taxes until 1741 and had the right of life
or death over their serfs until 1768
-Most Polish nobles were relatively poor and the few rich nobles exercised political power in
1881: Irish land act passed which strengthened tenant rights
accompanied by the Coercion Act to restore law and order
1884: Third reform act gave vote to most male farm workers
1885: Parnell, leader of the Irish movement orga
-Nobility constituted 1%-5% of the population of any country, but they were the single wealthiest
part of the population of every country and had the most social, political and economic power
-Nobles had their ow
1867: The states of Hanover, Hesse, and Nassau and the city of
Frankfort which had supported Austria during the war were
annexed by Prussia and their rulers deposed. All Germany north
of the main river became part of the North German Confederacy
Galileo Galilei: First person to use the already-invented
telescope to look at the skies; his observations gave further proof
to heliocentricism. His books were condemned by the Roman
Catholic Church and he was forced to retract his statements
when he wen
-In preindustrial Europe, household was center of production and consumption
-Most lived in rural areas and in small towns, where they were a mode of organization on farms,
in artisan workshops, and in small merchant workshops
-This was known as
The change in the scientific view of the universe that occurred
in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Mathematics and science began to be utilized to justify ideas
that earlier, couldnt be proved.
New scientific discoveries went against t
The German Romantic Writers
Almost all major German romantics wrote at least one
were often highly sentimental and borrowed material
from medieval romances.
wrote a progressive early romantic novel (Lucinde).
attacked contemporaneous prej
New Directions in Continental Religion
After the Thermidorian Reaction, a strong Roman
Catholic revival took place in France.
The romantics found God immanent in nature.
Schleiermacher-Speeches on Religion to Its
Romantic Views of Nati