Departments - NCA divided France into smaller, more
uniform sections. A switch from the earlier family dominated
sections. Divided the departments geographically. In this
they also abolished the parlements, something kings have
been trying to do for ye
Cahiers de Doleances - A list of grievances from the Third
Estate given to King XVI. It criticized many taxes,
corruption, and the hunting rights of the nobility. Basically
they wanted equality.
National Assembly - The king wanted the Third Estate t
1. Encyclopedia - One of the most influential and controversial
books of the Enlightenment. Embodies the purpose of the
Enlightenment: to allow everyone equal opportunity to learn and
better themselves. Brought out by the labors of Diderot and
Legislative Assembly - Replaced the NCA. They were the
legislative branch similar to British Parliament within a
Constitutional Monarchy. They were mostly radical but were
Jacobins - Political faction of Legislative Assembly. Radi
Josephinism - The term used to describe Joseph IIs
dealings with the church within his country. This entailed
cutting them off from greater authority like the Vatican as
well as determining which churches could remain. Similar
to the French Revolution.
1. Adam Smith - Said to have created modern economics. The
father of capitalism. He supported limited government
involvement in the economy (no tariffs/restrictive laws) except in
matters when it was too dangerous for a single corporation to
take on like
"the Mountain" - Group of radical Jacobins identified by
their high seats within the meetings. Wanted a republic.
Worked with the Sans-culottes to achieve this. Together
they dominated the revolution. With their cooperation, they
got Louis XVI executed
Revolutionary Insignia - The National Guard pledged
allegiance to Marquis de Lafayette, the American
Revolution French commander. He came up with this. Red
and blue stripes of Paris, separated by the white stripe of
the king. People wore it on them, ev
Crisis of the French Monarchy - Following the Seven Years
War and the American Revolution, France was deep in debt
with seemingly no way out. This forced the monarchy to
introduce new, higher taxes. However, even though France
was so wealthy, the arist
Mary Wollstonecraft - Proponent for womens rights. Very
bold and eloquent and challenged many of the most
prestigious philosophes like Rousseau. Argued women
were equal to men. She felt that society held itself back
when it didnt allow for women to be
The sexual division of labor
A new pattern of "separate spheres" emerged.
The man emerged as the family's primary
wage earner, while the woman found only
limited job opportunities.
Married women were much less likely to work
outside the house after the fi
o The new factory workers
Many observers claimed that the Industrial
Revolution brought misery to the workers.
The romantic poets Blake and Wordsworth
protested the life of the workers and the
pollution of the land and water.
The Luddites smashed the new
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain - GB was the pioneer in
A colonial empire, the expanding Atlantic trade, and a strong
and tariff free home market created new demands for English
Available capital, stable go
The birth of Marxian socialism
The Communist Manifesto (1848), by Marx and
Engels, is the key work of socialism.
Marx saw all of previous history in terms of an
economic class struggle.
The industrial society was characterized,
according to Marx, by the e
The coming of the railroads
Stephenson's steampowered Rocket was Europe's
first locomotive-running on the Liverpool and
Manchester Railway, the first important railroad
The railroad boom (1830-1850) meant lower
transportation costs, larger markets
o Metternich and conservatism
Metternich represented the view that the best state
blended monarchy, bureaucracy, and aristocracy.
He hated liberalism, which he claimed stirred up the
lower classes and caused war and bloodshed.
Liberalism also stirred up n
The peace settlement
o By 1814, the conservative monarchs had defeated French
armies and checked the spread of the French
Revolution-but many questions remained unanswered.
o The European balance of power
The victors (mainly the alliance of Russia, Austri
o Agents of industrialization in continental Europe
Cockerill, in Belgium, was one of many Englishmen
who brought British industrial secrets to other parts
In Germany, Harkort's failed attempt to industrialize
Germany illustrates the difficulty
"Nations" are recent creations-the product of
a new nationalist ideology centering on
ceremonies and parades and other traditions.
A common belief in "the people" linked
nationalism with democracy, liberalism, and
Nationalists believed tha
The change in the Corn Laws led to protests
by urban laborers, supported by radical
Parliament responded by passing the Six Acts
(1819), which eliminated all mass meetings.
The growth of the middle class and its desire for
reform led to th