New Directions in Continental Religion
After the Thermidorian Reaction, a strong Roman
Catholic revival took place in France.
The romantics found God immanent in nature.
Schleiermacher-Speeches on Religion to Its
Romantic Views of Nati
East European -In Poland, the szlachta were entirely exempt from taxes until 1741 and had the right of life
or death over their serfs until 1768
-Most Polish nobles were relatively poor and the few rich nobles exercised political power in
1881: Irish land act passed which strengthened tenant rights
accompanied by the Coercion Act to restore law and order
1884: Third reform act gave vote to most male farm workers
1885: Parnell, leader of the Irish movement orga
-Nobility constituted 1%-5% of the population of any country, but they were the single wealthiest
part of the population of every country and had the most social, political and economic power
-Nobles had their ow
1867: The states of Hanover, Hesse, and Nassau and the city of
Frankfort which had supported Austria during the war were
annexed by Prussia and their rulers deposed. All Germany north
of the main river became part of the North German Confederacy
Galileo Galilei: First person to use the already-invented
telescope to look at the skies; his observations gave further proof
to heliocentricism. His books were condemned by the Roman
Catholic Church and he was forced to retract his statements
when he wen
-In preindustrial Europe, household was center of production and consumption
-Most lived in rural areas and in small towns, where they were a mode of organization on farms,
in artisan workshops, and in small merchant workshops
-This was known as
The change in the scientific view of the universe that occurred
in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Mathematics and science began to be utilized to justify ideas
that earlier, couldnt be proved.
New scientific discoveries went against t
The German Romantic Writers
Almost all major German romantics wrote at least one
were often highly sentimental and borrowed material
from medieval romances.
wrote a progressive early romantic novel (Lucinde).
attacked contemporaneous prej
The big four (Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia) agreed
that no single state should be allowed to dominate
The restoration of the Bourbon monarchy and a nonvindictive boundary settlement were designed to keep
Language family- a collection of languages related through a common
ancestor that existed long before recorded history.
-Language branch- a collection of languages within a family that are related
through a common ancestor that existed several thousand ye
Missionaries- individuals who help to transmit a universalizing
religion through relocation diffusion.
Pagan- followers of polytheistic religions in ancient times.
Ghetto- city slum designated for Jew habitation.
Cosmogony- creation story.
Solstice- day w
Ideogram- letters that represent ideas or concepts, not specific
Extinct language- language no longer spoken or used in daily activities
by anyone in the world.
Isolated language- a language unrelated to any other and not attached
to any s
Ethnicity- the identity of a group of people who share the cultural
traditions of a particular homeland or hearth.
Race- the identity of a group of people who share a biological ancestor.
The most common ethnicities within the U.S. are African Americans
Some notable ethnic religions are:
HINDU- the worlds 3rd largest religion with 820 million adherents.
97% live in India
CONFUCIANISM- mainly in China, stresses ethical lifestyles
TAOISM- mainly in China also, followers seek the dao (tao) meaning
the way o
Diffusion of the Internet is following roughly the same pattern as TV did at
the start, which is the U.S. has a disproportionately large share of the
Internet hosts compared to its share of the world population. As the
Internet increasingly becomes the pe
Pop culture, compared to folk, varies widely from time to time in a given
place. This is due to its widespread and rapid diffusion, and the
relative wealth of the people to acquire the materials associated with
pop culture. Pop culture flourishes where pe
Dialect- a regional variation of a language distinguished by a
distinctive vocab, spelling, and pronunciation. English has the
largest # of dialects b/c of its wide diffusion.
Standard language- a dialect well-established and recognized for
Why do people migrate within a country?
Migration between regions of a country
Most famous example within the US is the movement West. For nearly
200 years, the dominant movement of American people was
almost due west in the search for new farmland to sat
Key Issue 4: What is ethnic cleansing?
Ethnic cleansing- the process in which a more powerful ethnic
group forcible removes a less powerful one in order to
create an ethnically homogeneous region. Probably the
best example is WWII in which millions of Jew
prerogative law falls under the heading of common law
e.g. appointment of ministers, the making of treaties, the
power of pardon, the dispensing of honors, the declaration of
such powers are normally exercised by the monarch on
the advice of minister
*Reform Act of 1867
*began the process of transfer of power from Parliament to
increased the size of the electorate from 1,358,000 to 2,477,000
Ballot Act of 1872 secret ballot
single-member districts in Britain known as constituencies of
*Party discipline or cohesion became part of Parliamentary life
program presented by party leaders
electorate votes for a party program
cabinet constituted the leaders of the party enjoying a
cabinet assumed the initiative f
-1894-1906 responsibilities expanded
growth of empire
expansion of industry
urbanization of electorate
growth of mass-based political parties
enfranchised working population
expansion of social legislation
*1964-1970 Harold Wilson Labour Government
join European Economic Community
national economic planning
consensus of 1950s remained intact
*The politics of Thatcher and Blair
-1970-74 Edward Heath and Conservatives
withdrawal of government from eco
Industrial Revolution 1760-1830
preceded by the Acts of Enclosure or the Agricultural Revolution
Great Britain was the first industrial nation
improvements in transport, organization, trade and banking
notable change i
*Walter Bagehot On the Constitution
attached importance to the elective function
the House of Commons was a real choosing body: it elects the people
it likes and it dismisses the people it likes to
the House of Commons did not itself govern, but gov
*there is no legal defense of conventions only tradition
no government has remained in office after losing a
parliamentary vote of no confidence
is there a point at which a necessary practice is accorded the
status of a constitutional convention? no
protection of industries
de-valued the pound
interest rates lowered
*public ownership of certain industries
*emergence of welfare state
Report on Social Insurance and Allied Servi
*Government of Tony Blair Labour
the new left
freedom of commercial enterprise Post Office
income tax remained the same
major utilities in private sector
trade union po