Please note that a lot of muscles are repeated on these lists
Muscle head model
Mini muscle figures (man and woman)
In this lab, we gained an understanding of the principles of diffusion and osmosis, while observing examples of
diffusion and osmosis in liquids. Diffusion is the spontaneous movement of molecules from an area of higher
concentration to one of l
The Effect of Osmotic Gradients on Tonicities of Blood Cells
Georgia Perimeter College
BIOL 1611L Anatomy & Physiology I
Dr. Saeed Hamdan
Introduction: Water is the body's prime solvent. In essence, the movement of water and
1: Discuss how the concept of horizontal gene transfer relates to bacteria. Include the following
in your discussion:
bacterial mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer and how they differ from normal
the importance of horizontal gene transfer t
acidophiles grow best at what pH range? pH of 5 or less (acidic)
alkaliphile grow best at what pH range? pH of 9 or more (alkaline)
human pathogens grow best in what pH range? between 6-8
what is anoth
Which of the following statements about bacterial flagella is true? Flagella can rotate 360
Taxis is movement towards or away from a stimulus.
Which of the following terms refers to a bacterium moving towards a light source? Positive
Glycolysis- Amount of ATP made Glycolysis produces 4 ATP's and 2 NADH, but uses 2 ATP's in
the process for a (Net of 2 ATP) and 2 NADH
Photosynthesis Proceeds in two phases- Light dependent reactions & light independent
Matching (20) Match items in column A to column B
Describe some of the different disciplines (areas of study) that are considered part of
* polysaccharide chitin in fungal cells walls but not
Microbes or microorganisms are small living things that make up everything.
Microbes could be bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses, and algae.
Microbes help maintain our balance living in our world.
Genus is the first name and specific epithet i
56) In 1877, Robert Koch thought preparing permanently stained slides would be valuable. Why
was his assessment correct?
A method was needed to separate these different bacteria. he used permanently staining methods to begin the
process of distinguis
i de a ltnro evapora
sck s ting
i . a pond.
Protozoan motility structures include
d. cilia and pseudopods only.
e. cilia, flagella, and pseudopods. e. cilia, flagella, and pseudopods.
Who is credited with first observing microorganisms?
a. Louis Pasteur
- Decompose organic waste
- are producers in the ecosystem by photosynthesis.
- produce industrial chemicals such as ethanol and acetone.
- produce fermented foods such as vinegar, cheese, and bread.
- produce products used in manufacturing
Chapter 8: Articulations
Articulations: Connection between bones = joint
Determines direction and distance of movement (range of motion = ROM)
Anatomy of joint determines how much it can move
Joint strength decreases as mobility inc
Chapter 5: Integumentary
Integumentary system includes more than just the skin.
2.) Sensation (receptors)
3.) Temperature regulation (from contraction and dilation of blood vessels)
4.) Vitamin D production (nutrient) stimulate
Chapter 2: Chemistry
pH Scale scale goes from 0-14, with 7 in the middle (see slide 2)
Lower number you have increase in H ions, more acidic; higher number more hydroxide (OH-) or basic =
Logarithmic scale because you are moving to the power of
Chapter 6, 7: Skeletal System, Bones
Skeletal System For Lecture exam you need to know the name of bones (but not there particular structural
names) and how they Articulate (Axial vs. Appendicular Skeleton)
1.) Support: vertebrae
Chapter 1: The Body An Orientation
Basic Information Introduction Chapter
Anatomy - Structure (a shape, or what it looks like)
Ex.) Femur; long, hard, rounded, color, shape
Physiology Function (how things work)
Ex.) How blood marrow produces blood cells
Chapter 3: The Cell
Remember shape determines function sperm cell vs. RBC
Cells are small. Larger organisms have more cells, not larger cells. Difference in size is number of cells. Cells
can be replaced. Variables: Shape, size, function
Chapter 11: Nervous System
Components of the NS:
- Brain and Spinal Cord
- Sensory Receptors
- Nerves collection of axons
- Ganglia collection of cell bodies outside CNS (brain, spinal cord)
Nervous System Organization
Nervous System: Say you
Chapter 4: Tissues
Tissue = two or more combination of cells that have specialized function.
Histology = study of tissues
When looking at slides in lab dont look at similarities but what is different; this will help!
Biopsy = take a sample of living cel
Chapter 14: ANS
- No conscious control (instruction)
- Coordinates system functions:
Smooth and Cardiac muscle
Needed for Long-term survival: ex) BP heart rate down, low BP and need to speed up heart
ANS vs. SNS:
Both are part o
Chapter 9, 10: Muscular System
If you understand the physiology of the muscle you will understand the nervous system! Lots of videos online
to help you; Most of information in class is in Ch. 9, Ch. 10 is covered more in Lab.
3 types of muscles we will
Chapter 13: PNS
Sensory Receptors Specialized neurons; includes interoceptors, exterocepters, proprioceptors
How perceive environment; can be internal environment as well
Translation of stimulus into an action potenti
Chapter 12: Brain
Brain most complex organ; dont know how everything about it yet.
Simplified in this class into parts and major functions. Major functions, but not all of them. Also keep in mind
that when studying a specific part that its not dependant