September 11, 2015
In 1885 Virchow discovered that when an organism gets sick it is not the entire living
body. He pointed out that it was actually certain cells or a group of them that got sick. He also
stated that diseases were caused by a change in the
Photosynthesis: Energy from
10 Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight
10.1 What Is Photosynthesis?
10.2 How Does Photosynthesis Convert
Light Energy into Chemical Energy?
10.3 How Is Chemical Energy Used to
Pathways that Harvest
9 Pathways that Harvest Chemical Energy
9.1 How Does Glucose Oxidation Release Chemical
9.2 What Are the Aerobic Pathways of Glucose
9.3 How Does Oxidative Phosphorylation Form
9.4 How I
Energy, Enzymes, and
8 Energy, Enzymes, and Metabolism
8.1 What Physical Principles Underlie
Biological Energy Transformations?
8.2 What Is the Role of ATP in
8.3 What Are Enzymes?
8.4 How Do Enzymes Work?
Cell Signaling and
7 Cell Signaling and Communication
7.1 What Are Signals, and How Do Cells
Respond to Them?
7.2 How Do Signal Receptors Initiate a
7.3 How Is the Response to a Signal
Transduced through the Cell?
6 The Dynamic Cell Membrane
6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?
6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell
Adhesion and Recognition?
6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane
6.4 How Do Substances Cross Membranes A
Cells: The Working Units
5 Cells: The Working Units of Life
5.1 What Features Make Cells the
Fundamental Units of Life?
5.2 What Features Characterize
5.3 What Features Characterize
5.4 What Are the Roles
Nucleic Acids and the Origin
4 Nucleic Acids and the Origin of Life
4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and
Functions of Nucleic Acids?
4.2 How and Where Did the Small
Molecules of Life Originate?
4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life
3 Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Lipids
3.1 What Kinds of Molecules
Characterize Living Things?
3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures
and Functions of Proteins?
3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures
and Functions of Ca
Inheritance, Genes, and
12 Inheritance, Genes, and Chromosomes
12.1 What Are the Mendelian Laws of
12.2 How Do Alleles Interact?
12.3 How Do Genes Interact?
12.4 What Is the Relationship between
Genes and Chromosomes?
Gene Mutation and Molecular
15 Gene Mutation and Molecular Medicine
15.1 What Are Mutations?
15.2 How Are DNA Molecules and Mutations
15.3 How Do Defective Proteins Lead to
15.4 What DNA Changes Lead to Genetic
Regulation of Gene
16 Regulation of Gene Expression
16.1 How Do Viruses Regulate Their Gene
16.2 How Is Gene Expression Regulated in
16.3 How Is Eukaryotic Gene Transcription
16.4 How Do Epigenetic Cha
This article was an overview of a small, open label, clinical trial
conducted to explore sphingomyelin liposomal injection as a possible
treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS).
IC/BPS is the
In metabolism, exergonic reactions proceed with a net release of free energy; G is negative and
the reaction is spontaneous.
Endergonic reactions require an input of free energy; G is positive and the reaction is
Cellular respiration is a
April 23, 2015
Is Evolution a Man-Made Myth?
Evolution is the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have
developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth. There
Nucleic Acids and the
Encoding of Biological
On the way to establishing DNA has
the heritable material . . .
Scientists knew that the substance responsible for passage of traits from
parent to offspring must be:
-a stable form of inf
From DNA to Protein: Gene
14 From DNA to Protein: Gene Expression
14.1 What Is the Evidence that Genes Code for
14.2 How Does Information Flow from Genes to
14.3 How Is the Information Content in DNA Transcribed
DNA and Its Role in Heredity
13 DNA and Its Role in Heredity
13.1 What Is the Evidence that the
Gene Is DNA?
13.2 What Is the Structure of DNA?
13.3 How Is DNA Replicated?
13.4 How Are Errors in DNA Repaired?
13.5 How Does the Polymerase Chain
The Cell Cycle and Cell
Why do cells divide? How are the
purposes and processes different in
prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
What controls the process of cell division?
What keeps cells from dividing when they
What are the major event
Evidence and Mechanisms of
21 Evidence and Mechanisms of Evolution
21.1 What Facts Form the Basis of Our
Understanding of Evolution?
21.2 What Are the Mechanisms of Evolutionary
21.3 How Does Natural Selection Result in
Small Molecules and the
Chemistry of Life
2 Small Molecules and The Chemistry of Life
2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain
the Properties of Matter?
2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form
2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in
1.1 What is Biology?
Biology: the scientific study of living things.
Living things: all the organisms descended
from a single-celled ancestor.
What separates living from non-living
1.1 What is Biology?
Characteristics of living org
Study Guide Chapter 6 Cell Membrane and Transport
How is a biological membrane made? What kind of molecules are found in or on a membrane?
What kinds of molecules can and cannot readily pass through a membrane?
What differentiates integral and peripheral
Study Guide Chapter 5 The Cell
How is it thought that a protocell could have evolved spontaneously?
Why is the surface area/volume ratio important for the size of a cell?
What structures in eukaryotic cells distinguish them from prokaryotic cells? What st
Study Guide Chapter 4 Nucleic Acids and the RNA world
How are nucleic acids similar to and different from proteins in terms of structure and function?
What do the individual monomers (nucleotides) of nucleic acids look like?
What functional groups attach
Study Guide Chapter 3Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Lipids
What are the four major macromolecules? Could you identify one if you were given a chemical
Which macromolecules are polar, nonpolar, or sometimes both? How could you tell if you were
Study Guide Chapter 2 Small Molecules and the Chemistry of Life
Could you explain the similarities and differences between elements, atoms, molecules, ions, and
What causes covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds? Which bonds are strongest?
Study Guide Chapter 1 Studying Life
Do you understand the hierarchy of life (from atoms molecules cells tissuesorgans
organ systems organisms populations, etc.)?
What are the defining characteristics of life? Which characteristics are present in bacteria
Nitrogen is essential to life. Excess nitrites cause hemoglobin to convert to
methemoglobin. Adults have an enzyme, methemoglobin reductase, which can convert it back to
hemoglobin, however, babies do not make enough. This causes blue baby syndro
A Macro Sized
Compare goods from a foreign supplier and from a domestic
supplier conducted by the FDA in order to determine how
accurate their labels are in relation