Direct-style (dictionary form)
style (long form)
Nominal & Adjective short form
form (long form)
1. Tell a colleague that youre going:
a. To the airport (1) by bus
i. (2) by electric train
b. To Kyoto (1) by plane
i. (2) by bullet train
c. To the station (1) by bicycle
i. (2) on foot
2. Stop a stranger and ask (politely):
a. If there is a stationery
There are two distinct ways to make a statement in Japanese. One way is to simply report the
facts as they are observed. This is the mode of speech that we have learned so far. In this les-
son, we will learn a new way: the mode of explaining things.
Short Present Aff.
Short Present Neg.
Short Past Aff.
Short Past Neg.
(1) to appear;attend (2)to exit
to be popular
to play (
ail?) o 7: A, Ti 0 (explaining to a person who has caught you smiling)
The exam is over. (That's why I m smiling.)
When it follows a noun or a titadjective, 11 comes in between.
report sentences explanation sentences