1. F = ma
2. There exists a mathematic relationship between acceleration and position a = er/dt2
3. A mathematical description of force(s) involved
= > a description of how the object(s) will move. => a powerful tool to predict motions of various objects.
(40) 1. Suppose that the radius of the Earth were cut in half. If the Earths mass
remains the same, compare the following before and after such a decrease
occurs. Express your results as ratios.
(a) surface gravity of the Earth
(c) circumference of th
(40) 1. Briefly describe an instance in antiquity in which human beings used
celestial objects to
(a) keep time (b) devise c en rs (c) navigate (6) practice astrology. 13.2
(40) 2. Choose one of the basic assumptions made in scientific philosophy and
(40) 1. Discuss the practical use(s) made by ancient cultures of the objects they saw
in the sky.
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Vuestion 1: Today is April 4; the Sun is him
(a north of the celestial equator and headed toward an equinox.
orth of the celestial equator and headed toward a solstice.
(0) south of the celestial equator and headed toward an equinox.
(d) south of the cele
1 Cruising far from the Sun, we notice that the Suns apparent brightness has dimmed to 0.1 watts per square
meter. We know that the apparent brightness at a distance of lau is 1000 watts per square meter. How far from
the Sun are we?
(40) 1. An astronomer observes the spectrum of a certain object and obtains the
graph shown below. The absorption feature A is identified as having a
laboratory wavelength equal to 1000 X 10.9 meters. From these data,
find the following:
(a) the Kelvi
1. What is planetary geology? Briey summarize the different geological appearances
of the ve terrestrial worlds.
>processes that change a planet's surface long after formation, such as volcanism, tectonics, and
Venus has volcanos, but no active ow