Political culture The widely shared beliefs, values, and norms about how citizens relate to
governments and to one another.
Social capital Democratic and civic habits of discussion, compromise, and respect for
differences, which grow out of participation
Political party An organization that seeks political power by electing people to office so that
its positions and philosophy become public policy.
Nonpartisan election A local or judicial election in which candidates are not selected or
endorsed by politi
Winner-take-all system An election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins.
Single-member district An electoral district in which voters choose one representative or
Proportional representation Election system in which each party
Public opinion The distribution of individual preferences or evaluations of a given issue,
candidate, or institution within a specific population.
Random sample In this type of sample, every individual has unknown and random chance of
Devolution revolution The effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning
many functions to the states.
Federalism Constitutional arrangement in which power is distributed between a central
government and subdivisional governments, called
Democracy Government by the people, both directly or indirectly, with free and frequent
Direct democracy Government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directly.
Representative democracy Government in which the people elect thos
Natural law Gods or natures law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law.
Separation of powers Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and
judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executi
Faction A term the founders used to refer to political parties and special interests or interest
Pluralism A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can
check the asserted power by any one group.
Interest group A
Ethnocentrism Belief in the superiority of ones nation or ethnic group.
Political socialization The process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and
Demographics The study of the characteristics of populations.
Mass media Means of communication that are reaching the public, including newspapers and
magazines, radio, television (broadcast, cable, and satellite), films, recordings, books, and
News media Media that emphasize the news.