CELL MEMBRANES AND MOLECULAR MOVEMENTS
I. CELL MEMBRANES-surround and protect living cells.
A. Cell membranes serve as the outer covering in animal cells; however, they are covered
by the cell wall in plant cells.
B. Functions of Cell Membranes
VIRUSES, BACTERIA AND PROTISTS
A. Viruses are not included in the classification scheme for living organisms because they are
noncellular and cannot be classified with cellular organisms. Other reasons why viruses are
not considered to be livin
CHARLES DARWIN AND EVOLUTION
I. Geologists have been able to illustrate that the Earth is more than 4.6 billion years old.
A. Fossils indicate that the first living cells on this planet appeared about 3.7 billion years ago.
1. These first cells were simpl
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND GENE EXPRESSION
I. As we know, genes play a role in providing traits to individuals. Recall that they are also involved in
the production of proteins. This is the area that we are going to focus on in this chapter.
A. In 1940, George
GENETIC ENGINEERING AND RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
I. GENETIC ENGINEERING-the transfer of genes from one chromosome to another.
A. This has become a much studied area in the field of genetics. It is also very controversial.
B. Genetic engineering can be c
I. For years, scientists have observed similar traits in individuals in the same family.
A. Such patterns have been observed in both plant and animal populations.
B. However, the reasons for these similarities have only recently been di
THE STRUCTURE AND REPAIR OF DNA
I. HISTORICAL STUDIES ON DNA:
A. Johann Meischer-1868B. Fred Griffith-1928C. Oswald Avery-1930sD. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase-1952
E. Watson and Crick-1953
F. Rosalind Franklin-1940s and 1950sII. THE STRUCTURE OF DNA
CELL DIVISION: MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS
I. As we know living cells must reproduce themselves to maintain life.
A. In unicellular organisms, cell division acts to increase the number of individuals present,
while in multicellular organisms, cell division acts t
I. All organisms require energy to survive and function properly.
A. Autotrophs1. What are some examples of autotrophs?
2. Some autotrophs can produce their carbohydrates from inorganic compounds. This
usually occurs in some bacteria.
I. PHOTOSYNTHESIS-a set of reactions in which plants convert light energy into glucose.
A. Plants use this glucose to generate their supply of ATP. Like animals, plants breakdown
the glucose to generate ATP.
B. During periods of active phot
METABOLISM: ENERGY AND ENZYMES
I. METABOLISM-the total of all of the reactions that occur in a living organism.
A. This includes those reactions that generate energy, breakdown large molecules and
remove wastes from the organism.
B. Anabolic vs. Catabolic
CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
I. Today, scientists know that all living organisms are composed of cells .
A. Cells are defined as the smallest living, functional units in living organisms.
B. Cells come in a variety of sizes and shapes; however, most cells
THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES
I. What are Polymers (Macromolecules)?
A. Types of Reactions associated with Polymers:
1. Dehydration (Condensation) Reactions-reactions in which monomers bond together to
a. Water is lost from the mono
CHAPTER 4-CARBON AND LIFE
I. MACROMOLECULES-large molecules that are composed of smaller molecules and atoms
that are bonded together. These are among the largest of all chemical molecules.
A. Polymers-the largest of the macromolecules. These are composed
CHAPTER 3-WATER AND LIFE
A. Water is the most abundant compound in all living organisms. Many of the reactions
that occur in living organisms occur or require water to take place. Without water,
living things (including both plants and animals) w
CHEMISTRY OF LIFE
I. CHEMISTRY-the science dealing with the properties and transformations of matter.
II. MATTER-anything that occupies space and has a mass. Matter can exist in one of three
forms: as a solid, liquid or gas.
A. Components of Matter
CHAPTER 1-A VIEW OF LIFE
I. BIOLOGY-the science that examines living organisms and all of the processes relating to living things.
A. Biology is a science. Science is defined as knowledge based on observed facts.
II. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD-the process that