Mutation followed by natural selection results in a population with darker colouration.
From a Neo-Darwinian perspective, evolution occurs when there are changes in the frequencies of
alleles within a population of interbreeding organisms.
In addition to being a major source of variation, mutation may also function as a mechanism of
evolution when there are different probabilities at the molecular level for different mutations to occur,
a process known as mutation bias.
A visual demonstration of rapid antibiotic resistanceevolution by E. coli growing across a plate with increasing
concentrations of trimethoprim.
Evolution influences every aspect of the form and behaviour of organisms. Most prominent are the
Further information: Extinction
Tyrannosaurus rex. Non-aviandinosaurs died out in the CretaceousPaleogene extinction event at the end of
the Cretaceous period.
Extinction is the disappearance of an entire species. Extinction is not an unusual e
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The pollinating wasp Dasyscolia ciliata in pseudocopulation with a flower of Ophrys speculum
Part of a series on
Diagrammatic representation of the divergence of modern taxonomic
Common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis) has evolved resistance to the defensive
substance tetrodotoxinin its amphibian prey.
Further information: Coevolution
Interactions between organisms can produce both conflict and cooperation.
Further information: Introduction to genetics, Genetics, Heredity, and Reaction norm
DNA structure. Bases are in the centre, surrounded by phosphatesugar chains in a double helix.
Evolution in organisms occurs through changes in heritable traitst
History of evolutionary thought
Alfred Russel Wallace
Thomas Robert Malthus
In 1842, Charles Darwin penned his first sketch of On the Origin of Species.
Main article: History of evolutionary thought
The proposal that one type
Evolution of life
Main articles: Evolutionary history of life and Timeline of evolutionary history of life
Evolutionary tree showing the divergence of modern species from their common ancestor in the centre. The
three domains are coloured, with bacte
White peppered moth
Black morph in peppered moth evolution
Main article: Genetic variation
Further information: Genetic diversity and Population genetics
An individual organism's phenotype results from both its genotype and the influence from th
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over
successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of biological
organisation, including the levels of species, individual organ
Social and cultural responses
Further information: Social effects of evolutionary theory, 1860 Oxford evolution debate, Creation
evolution controversy, and Objections to evolution
As evolution became widely accepted in the 1870s, caricatures of Charles Da
Chapter 16: Breast & Axilla
A patient reports spontaneous discharge from her left nipple. How would you determine
if the discharge was from one or multiple ducts?
Order an ultrasound.
Order a mammogram.
Compress the nipple an
-3- bearded woman during pregnancy- like from adrenal tumor. which can make lots of male hormone
-in prego, grows in size with fetus
4- note the fig and what he added.
-beta cells- mostly from dorsal pancreatic bud
-pancreatic polypeptide cells, aka
Class 2019 Endocrinology phase Physiology practice questions
1. A 28-year-old female patient comes to your office complaining of infertility, obesity, and
hirsutism. You immediately order the lab test on her blood samples. Lab studies indicate
1.Mr. Sherman is a 65-year-old patient who has long-standing hypertension.
Which clinical finding would you expect?
Decreased blood volume
Increased stroke volume
Decreased cardiac irritability
2.Mr. Torres is a 62-year-old patient wh
CHAPTER 17 QUESTIONS
1.Mr. Jones is a 46-year-old patient-year-old patient who presents to your office with a
complaint of fatigue. Which statement made by Mr. Jones suggests a potential risk for viral
"I am a health care worker."
"I had a bl
Dr. Sabrina Walthall
May 30, 2017
Scientist from Harvard University have established a fast inexpensive paper test for the
Zika virus that can give you results in hours. This came about from the technology that
Membrane Structure and Function
Function: The plasma
membrane exhibits selective
permeability, allowing some
substances to cross it more
easily than others
In 1972, Singer and Nicolson proposed that the membrane is a
mosaic of proteins dispersed
Chapter 19. Virusesalive?
budding from cell
The Discovery of Viruses:
Tobacco mosaic disease stunts growth of
tobacco plants and gives their leaves a mosaic
Fluid transport systems
Nutrition and waste systems
Nervous system: spinal cord and
Functions of the spinal cord
Anatomy of the spinal cord
Anatomy of the spinal cord
Cervical and lumbar
Circulatory system: the heart
Blood vessel types
Arteries carry blood away from heart
Veins carry blood to the heart
Capillaries incredibly small blood vessels
connecting small arteries and small veins
The heart sits in the mediastinum
Nervous System: The Brain
Gray matter vs. white matter
Function specific to brain: dura forms dural sinuses
(spaces) to drain blood and CSF from brain
Contain cerebrospinal fluid
Lined with ependymal cells
Ch. 10: Lissamphibia
Meet in 103 or 101 for Lab on Wednesday
Rough Draft due Friday
Gymnophiona: Caecilians (190 spp.)
Fossorial limbless- goes underground
o Head end good for digging in soil
o Live underground, not see often
o Found mostly in