In what way can adding water to a slope increase the slope stability?
A. By increasing the pore pressure.
B. By increasing the mass of the system.
C. By increasing adhesion of the particl
What is post glacial rebound?
A. The rise of the land to pre-glacial elevations.
B. The movement of glaciers back to the land after coming into contact with the sea.
C. A measurement tool for determining the depth of a glacier.
For the topographic map pictured determine (1) the contour interval (in feet), and (2) the elevation at point I.
A. The contour interval is 100 ft and the elevation at point I is 5750 ft.
B. The contour interval is 20 ft and the eleva
Ice and Glaciers, Wind and Deserts
1. A glacier is a mass of ice that moves or flows under its own weight in response to the pull of gravity. The two
types of glaciers are alpine glaciers (also known as mountain or valley glac
1. The movement of geological materials, usually downslope, in response to the force of gravity is called mass
wasting or mass movement. Mass movements occur when shearing stress (downward pull) exceeds the shea
Midterm 1 Review
The following topics will be covered on the midterm:
Streams and Flooding (Chapter 6)
Coastal Zones and Processes (Chapter 7)
Mass Movements (Chapter 8)
COASTAL ZONES AND PROCESSES
1. Gently sloping, broad beaches are typically associated with passive continental margins, such as the eastern
margin of North America.
2. Causes of long-term sea-level change include the melting o
A natural resource on its own is generally useless it needs to be embedded in a
complex socio-technological system to have value.
Depletion- short supply or disappears entirely.(renewable and non- renewable)
Degradation- when the discharge
Geology Lab- Final
Soils and the Environment (163-173)
OPEN ENDED: SOIL PROFILE( Picture #1)
o A-Horizon: Zone of leaching, Organic-rich in upper few inches
o B-Horizon: Zone of Accumulation, Less organic matter than above
Tends to contain more clay and
(Additional material: Environmental Geology by Edward A. keller, 2000)
all unconsolidated material
materials supporting plant
Soil: base of life!
Mt. St. Helen
Additional information source of this lecture:
1. Meteorology Today | An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and
the Environment by C. Donald Ahrens, 7th edition, Thompson
2. NASA: http:/modis-land.gsfc.nasa.gov/mod
Coastal Zones and Processes
30 US States abut
major water bodies
of US population lives
along the coast
Coastal versus Inland Population Growth
Source: National Oce
Factors governing flood severity
Definition of flood:
Rising and overflowing of
a body of water especially
onto normally dry land.
Infiltration versus runoff
[soil type; moistur
Slide in Denali
A general term
for the results of
Source:Courtesy of Carla W. Montgomery.
Landslide potential, USA
Mass wasting/mass movements
What is the difference between rivers and streams?
A Stream, in simple terms, is a natural body of flowing water.
Despite this simple definition, streams are complex ecosystems
in which biological, chemical, or physical changes may affect
Water Pollution (2)
1) Surface water:
Living & dead organisms
Byproducts of organisms
Human and animal wastes
Waste Disposal (cont )
1. Waste treatment: INCINERATION
Burning of combustible
typically ~ ? % reduction in
generation of electric power
Environmental dioxin source
Air Pollution (cont.)
1) LA Smog (
2) London Smoke
3) The Ozone Hole
4) Acid Deposition
Formation of photochemical smog
Photochemical [L.A. type or
Winds Kinetic Energy Moves This Turbine
Fig. 2-10, p. 44
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Fig. 2-11, p. 45
(not to scale)
0.001 0.01 0.1 1
3-2 What Are the Major
Components of an Ecosystem?
Concept 3-2 Some organisms produce
the nutrients they need, others get their
nutrients by consuming other organisms,
and some recycle nutrients back to
producers by decomposing the wastes
and remains of o
2-5 What Are Systems and How Do
They Respond to Change?
Concept 2-5 Systems have inputs, flows, and
outputs of matter and energy, and feedback can
affect their behavior.
Systems Have Inputs, Flows,
Set of components that interact in
Primary Ecological Succession
Fig. 5-19, p. 119
Fig. 5-19, p. 119
Fig. 1-15, p. 19
Cultural Changes Have
Increased Our Ecological
12,000 years Footprints and gatherers
Three major cultural events
Core Case Study: Tropical Rain
Forests Are Disappearing
Cover about 2% of the earths land
Contain about 50% of the worlds known
plant and animal species
Disruption will have three major harmful
Natural Capital Degradati
Ecological Footprints: A Model of
Unsustainable Use of Resources
Ecological footprint: the amount of biologically
productive land and water needed to provide the people
in a region with indefinite supply of renewable resources,
and to absorb and recycle w
Botswana Age Structure, With and Without AIDS
Figure 6.16: Global outlook:
Worldwide, AIDS is the leading
cause of death for people ages
1549. This loss of productive
working adults can affect the age
structure of a population. In
Botswana, more than 24%