Nature and Survival for Children
By Tom Brown
1. What extreme need does Tom Brown see in our school system? What are children
The extreme need that Tom Brown sees in our school system is that most of what is taught to
children is lopsided, feeding
1.2 The Traditional Divisions of Philosophy
1. Define in depth the 3 traditional divisions of philosophy. (12 mark question on a test)
Epistemology is the study of knowledge.
It investigates the nature, sources, limitations and validity o
Many of us are taught that belief is the result of reasoned thought which informed you
and then you chose to believe or not believe. But actually, your beliefs are shaped by your
subjective interpretations of your experien
1.4 The Value of Philosophy
1) Answer the question: Why devote all this time and energy to study philosophy?
The value of philosophy is that through it we achieve freedom freedom from
assumptions we have unquestioningly accepted from other
Unit 1 Philosophers Review
Plato Socrates disciple, Myth of the Cave, Page 5
Perictone A woman philosopher whom we think lived around the time of Plato; Clearly
expressed philosophy is the activity of examining our beliefs about the most fundamental and
2.2 What is Human Nature?
Human life has a purpose: humans have a destiny related to life after death; (leads to
Believe in Self: the individual person; the ego; the knower; that which persists through
changes in a person
Self is different
2.3 How Do Mind and Body Relate?
Body: Can be touched & measured; material entity
Mind: Source of creativity/deepest feelings; immaterial entity. Characteristic feature;
Consciousness: The awareness you have of yourself and your sensing when you awake
3.2 Reality: Material or Nonmaterial?
1) What was St. Augustines view of reality? Where do humans fit in?
Augustine held that reality the real existing universe contains within itself every possible kind of
being, from the lowest kind of inert matter to
The Matrix Questions
1) Discuss the movie in relation to Platos analogy of the cave.
The movie is exactly in relation to Platos analogy of the cave. Everyone is born into the false
reality of the Matrix, just as everyone is born into the pr
3.3 Reality in Pragmatism
1. Why have some of the philosophers dropped the debate between materialism and idealism?
Some of the philosophers have dropped the debate between materialism and idealism because it is pointless;
nothing will chan
3.2 Reality as Non-Matter
First read Nothing is Real on p.270. What does quantum theory state about the reality of sub atomic
Quantum theory states that nothing is real and that we cannot say anything about what things are doing
3.6 Encountering Reality: Phenomenology and Existentialism
1. What outlooks on reality do phenomenology and existentialism share?
Phenomenology and existentialism share a number of outlooks on reality:
Many phenomenologists and existential
Two Types of
In metaphysics, the position that reality is ultimately non-matter; in epistemology, the position
that all we know are our ideas. Belief that reality is essentially idea
Ethics Unit 7
1) What is the difference between ethics and morality? Define: moral standards.
Ethics is the attempt to examine ones values, to shape and rethink them in the light of ones own experience; it
is the study of morality; it deals
Robert Nozick: To say something is real is to say it has value, meaning, importance and weight.
Saint Augustine: Both material and spirit
Charvaka: Eastern materialists based on sense perception
Unit 4: Philosophy and God (Metaphysics)
Traditionally religion refers to a belief in God that is institutionalized and incorporated in the
teachings of some religious body, such as a church or synagogue. In modern times, the emphasis
is more on deep pers
4.2 Does God Exist?
Theism is the belief in a personal God who has created the world and is immanent in its
processes, and with whom we come into intimate contact.
Three traditional arguments for a theistic God are the ontological argument
4.1 Introduction: What is religion?
Refer to first paragraph of Unit 4: Philosophy and God (Metaphysics) for summary.
Humans stand midway between nature and spirit On one hand we are finite, bound to
earth and capable of sin. On the other,
4.4 Traditional Religious Belief and Experience
William James called the acquisition of religious belief a live, forced, and momentous option.
Many people, unstable to find religious belief of experience in a theistic God, find both in a de
The Function of Education
1) What is the function of education?
The function of education can be viewed upon negatively or positively. Negatively would mean
its function is to conform us to society by preparing us for the best jobs so we wo
The universe is made up only of matter, physical bodies. No God, spirits, souls, etc. It is
not real if you cant measure it.
Descartes (1596-1650) the mathematician philosopher was a dualist, he believed in a
mind (soul)/body. He f
4.5 Nontraditional Religious Experience
Radical theology, as presented by Soren Kierkegaard and Paul Tillich, has mystical overtones. It appeals to deep
personal experience as justification for belief. Tillichs God is being itself, the God
4.3 Atheism, Agnosticism, and the Problem of Evil
Atheism and agnosticism are responses to the difficulties in the traditional arguments for a
theistic God. Atheism claims that we know God does not exist, arguing particularly that the
c) In a paragraph, describe Descartes position. (Where is knowledge to be found?)
His frame of mind is disillusionment. Descartes argued that our sense perceptions may be
illusions of the products of our own dreams or hallucinations. Our ideas may be noth
5.3 Can the Senses Account for All Our Knowledge?
a) Summarize the empiricist position. b) Make sure you define: empiricism; a posteriori;
Empiricism: the position that knowledge has its origins and derives all of its content
HZT4U Philosophy Exam Review
MULTIPLE CHOICE /DEFINITIONS
Philosophy begins with wonder. The goal of philosophy is to get us to answer these questions for ourselves - to
make up our own minds about our self, life, knowledge, art, religion and m
5.4 Kant: Does the Knowing Mind Shape the World?
a) Summarize the Transcendental Idealist position (Kants position).
Kant accepted that experience is the only basis for true knowledge of reality, but also
suggested that reason also contrib