Restriction Enzymes: (Restriction endonuclease) enzymes that recognize foreign (viral)
DNA and cut it up, rendering it useless. (Originate from bacterias primitive immune system).
RE recognizes palindromic (4-8 base pair) sequence recogniti
The Nervous System:
Central Nervous System: consists of brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System: consists of nerves that carry information from organs and
muscles to the spinal cord and brain.
Somatic nerves: control bones, muscles and skin. (mos
Excretory Systems have 3 main chemicals to control:
1. Water (humans need about 2L per day)
If water level in body decreases by: 1% thirst, 5% pain/collapse, 10% death.
Ions (H+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg+, Cl- etc) Regulates aciditiy and alkalinity
Human body functions optimally at:
37C (If too hot, enzymes denature, too cold, reactions slow down).
0.1% blood sugar level
7.2-7.4 blood pH level. +/- 0.2 leads to death
Blood pressure 120/80mmHg
Oxygen and Carbon dioxide levels
All the hormone
that secrete hormones
Hormones are secreted
directly to body fluids.
Also secrete chemicals
Have ducts to
(eg sweat, mucus)
Metabolism: Sum of all anabolic and catabolic process in a cell/organism.
First Law of Thermodynamics:
Energy cannot be created or destroyed but only converted from one form to another.
Metabolic Process: Harvest of chemical energy
Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy C6H12O6 + 6O2
Carried out by plants, algae, some protists and cyanobacteria.
All contain chlorophyll (light absorbing green-coloured pigment)
Chlorophyll a (blue-green) Chlorophyll b (yellow-green)
Note: If instead of
Molecular Genetics Review
DNA: Hereditary Material
Hershey Chase Experiment:
Bacteriophage has DNA surrounded by Protein Coat. Virus only injects DNA into bacteria
Radioisotopes put on DNA or protein coat
Cell was blended and put into centrifuge to separa
Biology Review Biochemistry
Isotopes: same number of protons, different number of neutrons.
Radioisotopes: radioactive atoms that spontaneously decay (Carbon-14)
Used as tracers to follow chemicals through chemical reactions in the body.
Carbon dating: Wh