Biology Unit 1 Biodiversity Review:
Species: group of organisms that can interbreed and produce viable fertile offspring.
Morphology: body shape, size, and other structural features
Advantage: simple to name,
Disadvantage: determining how
1.1 - Stem Cells
* What are stem cells?
https:/www.youtube.com/watch?t=12&v=ZE_deAJgdSA (induced pluripotent stem cells)
* Use of stems cells to treat Stargardts d
5.3 Classification of Biodiversity
Application: Recognition features of porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelida, mollusca, arthropoda, and
Species in the animal kingdom are divided into over 30 phyla based on their characteristics.
Estimating Field of View and Magnification & Drawing Scale Bar
Part A: Estimating the Field of View and Total Magnification
1. Place a transparent metric ruler under the low power objective of a microscope.
2. Focus the microscope on the scale of th
Defence against Infectious
The human body has structures and
processes that resist the continuous
threat of invasion by pathogens.
How does our body protect us from pathogens
The first line of
defence are the surface
To put viral size into perspective, a medium sized virion
next to a flea is roughly equivalent to a human next to a
mountain twice the size of Mount Everest.
Events in the
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
1.1 Introduction to Cells
Skill: Calculation of the magnification of drawings and the actual size of structures and ultrastructures shown in
drawings of micrographs. (Practical 1)
1. Determine the length (longest side) of the nucleus
shown in th
3.2 Chromosomes - Worksheet
1. What are plasmids? In which type of cells can they be found?
2. Human DNA contains 46 chromosomes with over 3 billion bases, how is all this DNA packed inside
the nucleus of a cell?
3. What are homologous chromosomes?
1.1 - Unicellular Organisms
*Unicellular organisms consist of only one cell.
* What functions are necessary for these organisms to live?
Theory of Evolution
Theory vs Law
Explanation for an observation or series of
observations that is substantiated by a considerable
body of evidence (Krimsley, 1995)
Set of observed regularities expressed in a concise
verbal or mathematical
5.1 Evidence for
Essential idea: There is overwhelming evidence
for the evolution of life on Earth.
Overview of Evolution:
Evidence for Evolution:
Mendels Law of Segregation
Mendel concluded that there must be
hereditary factors for each trait he studied
Today we call these factors alleles
Law of Segregation: inherited traits are
determined by the pairs of factors that
segregate into eac
Cladistics (IB 5.4)
The ancestry of groups of species can be deduced by
comparing their base or amino acid sequences.
Nature of Science:
Falsification of theories with one theory being
superseded by another-plant families have been
Gregor Mendel (Father of
Austrian (part of Austria now Czech) monk
Experimented with pea plants (Pisum sativum)
Recognized posthumously for establishing
rules of heredity
These rules now called
Prokaryotes have one chromosome
Chromosome consists of a
circular DNA molecule
Some prokaryotes also have
John Cairn used autoradiography to measure the length of DNA
In this activity, you will use a computer model to look at chromosomes and prepare a karyotype. You will diagnose
patients for abnormalities and learn the correct notation for characterizing karyotypes.
Site 1: Genetic Sc
1.1 Questioning the Cell Theory
Does the structure of the organism or tissue conform to the Cell Theory?
Nature of Science (3.1): Looking for trends and discrepancies-although most organisms conform to cell theory,
there are exceptions.
Gamete formation in animals:
Spermatogenesis: production of sperm cell
Takes place in the testicles.
Starts with a diploid cell called spermatogonium.
Following Meiosis II, cell develops, into mature cell. Nucleus and certain molecules
are formed into a h
Darwin developed theory with 3 observations:
Struggle for Existence: reproduce more than the environment can support, creates
competition for limited resources.
Variation: differences in traits that can be heritable.
Environment: favours certain variation
Genetics Unit Review
Genetics: The field of biology involving the study of how genetic information is passed from one
generation to the next.
All living things are made up of one or more cells.
Cells are the smallest units of living organisms
Virus: structure that contains DNA or RNA strands surrounded by a protein coat.
Not considered alive as it cannot reproduce independently.
Capsid: outer protein layer that protects the genetic material
Named by shape: Spherical, Polyhedral, Cylindrical, B
Respiration: process of bringing oxygen in and making it available to body while disposing CO 2.
Inspiration and Expiration: inhaling and exhaling
External respiration: exchange of CO2 and O2 between air in lungs and blood.
Internal respiration: e
Bio Review Evolution
Exobiology: study of life outside our planet.
Origin of life:
Theories: prebiotic synthesis of amino acids, lipids and other organic molecules.
Scenarios: 1. ocean surface/tidal pools on warm days
2. As passengers of comets/meteors
Gene Flow (migration): Genes move in/out changing the frequency and may introduce new
Exchange genes with other populations.
Reduces genetic differences between populations
Non-random mating: mates due to a characteristic, trait is passed on.
Circulatory System: Transports gases, nutrients, chemical substances and waste products.
Regulates internal body temperature.
Protects against blood loss from injury and prevents foreign attacks.
Composed of heart, blood vessels and blood.
There are three main fluid compartments of the body.
Cytoplasm in cells
Fluid between cells (interstitial fluid)
Fluid of the blood.
Water makes up 60% of body.
Body contain inorganic matter (ions) and organic matter (nutrients, called
IB 6.3 Defence Against Infectious Disease
Essential Idea: The human body has structures and processes that resist the continuous threat of invasion
Nature of Science: Risks associated with scientific research-Florey and Chains tests o
1.1 Introduction to Cells
Essential idea: The evolution of multicellular organisms allowed cell specialization and cell replacement.
Nature of Science (NoS):
Looking for trends and discrepancies-although most organisms conform to cell theory, there are
the study of heredity
and variation of living
organisms and how
genetic information is
passed from one
generation to the
up of two long
strands that form a
spiral shape called a
molecule can be