Unit 2 Lesson 5 Meiosis
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
No individual organism can live forever
Chance events or a gradual breakdown through aging lead to death
Species can persist for millions of years because their members reproduce
Organisms can repr
Unit 3 Lesson 9 (The Human Digestive System)
Our bodies require a steady supply of nutrients to be used as an energy source to make
compounds for metabolic processes
Building blocks for maintenance, growth and repair of tissues
Every cell in o
Unit 1 Lesson 4 (Speciation)
Species and Speciation
Species: defined as one or more populations of individuals that can interbreed under natural conditions
and produce fertile offspring that are reproductively isolated from other such populations.
SNC4M: UNIT 2 Pathogens and Disease
2.1 Introduction to Pathogens and Disease
INFECTION AND DISEASE
Infectious diseases are caused by infectious agents or pathogens.
a. Pathogens can be classified as microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
3.6 Nutrient Energy Content
The energy content in food is measured by burning the food and measuring the heat given off by
the burning food.
a.) This amount of heat energy is exactly equivalent to the amount of energy the food can
provide to the body for
List the three parts of the small intestine.
The three parts of the small intestine are the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
Name the enzyme that digests carbohydrates, specifically starch, and the area where this
2.3.1 Properties and Virulence of Various Bacteria
Transmission of Disease
The human body can be attacked by pathogens and parasites. Pathogens can be transferred by a
number of methods. A few modes of transmission of disease are described below.
3.5.3 The Digestive System
After passing through the esophagus, the food enters the stomach, a muscular J-shaped organ.
A. The top of the stomach is called the fundus.
B. The lining of the stomach is packed with millions of gastric glands.
C. The stomach
2.6.2 Role of International Non-Government Agencies
World Health Organization:
The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that
acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7th
Enzymes are little chemical-reaction machines.
The purpose of an enzyme in a cell is to allow the cell to carry out chemical reactions as
quickly as possible without using too much energy.
a. These reactions allow the cell to build things or
2.1.3 Types of Pathogens
a. All bacteria are prokaryotes, but they vary in their structure
b. Bacteria are categorized according to the properties of their cell
walls and characteristics such as cell shape and arrangements,
3.9.1 Medical Technology: Dietitian Unit
Nutrition is important for many reasons, but the main two are:
1.) It provides the energy required to carry out the metabolic activities required by your body.
2.) It provides your body with the essential raw mater
2.5.1 Immunity and the Role of Antibiotics
Control of Disease
a. Many factors can influence the spread of disease, including social climate, diet, general health,
and access to medical care.
b. Human intervention and modification of behaviour can reduce t
3.2.1 Chemical Tests on Macromolecules
Chemical tests can be performed on foods and beverages to reveal what important
macromolecules they contain. Determining the presence of specific macromolecules can aid in
learning about nutritional science.
3.4.1 Lab: Titration
An antacid is any substance, generally a base or basic salt, such as sodium bicarbonate in
Alka-Seltzer, aluminium hydroxide in Gaviscon, or calcium carbonate in Tums and
Rolaids, which counteracts stomach acidity.
a. Antacids buffer
Health Canada must approve all the artificial sweeteners that are sold in Canada. The sweetener
has to undergo extensive research to show its safety and effectiveness before it is approved. Once
it is approved, Health Canada sets guidelin
SNC4M: Unit 3 Nutritional Science
A nutritious diet is an important component of a healthy lifestyle. Yet, decisions about what you
eat can be influenced by social factors such as availability of fast food in a fast-paced society,
2.2 Effects of Various Treatment on Pathogenesis
There are many species of bacteria that exist in the world, but relatively few cause diseases in
humans. Bacteria infect a host to acquire food from the host's body tissues. A bacterium c
How Microbial Drugs Work:
Microbial drugs can work via the following methods.
1. Inhibit the synthesis of new cell walls during cell division.
Examples of these drugs include penicillin, vancomycin, cephalosporins,
2. Inhibit protein synth
a.) When you eat protein, your body breaks it down into amino acids that can be used to build,
repair, and maintain your skin, muscles, organs, blood, and even bones.
b.) Protein is needed for growth.
c.) Protein comes from animal sources (
2.4.1 Life Cycles
a. Viruses infect living cells by injecting their genetic material into the host cell and using
the metabolism of the cell to produce new viral particles.
b. The process may not take place immediately following infectio
3.1.4 Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins and minerals are very important in a daily diet. A few examples of important vitamins
and minerals are listed below.
Calcium is important for strong bones.
a. It also helps your muscles contract, your blood clot, your
2.4.3- Malaria Lifecycle
Malaria is a serious parasitic disease, spread by bites of Anopheles mosquitoes, affecting up to
300 million people in the tropics each year.
The parasites responsible for malaria are protozoa known as Plasmodium. Plasmodium paras
SNC4U FINAL EXAM NOTES:
Which alternative technology/therapy involves the manipulation of your spine?
Which alternative technology/therapy involves in the use of needles?
Which alternative technology/theraph
SNC4M: Science Grade 12
Unit 1: Medical Technologies
1.1- Introduction to Medical Technology
Four Primary Vital Signs in Human
a. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiration rate, and body temperature are the four
primary vital signs that are measured in hum
Scientific Research and Technology
For over centuries access to medical care for remote areas has always been a struggle and a
barrier to the community. World Health Association stated that, Telemedicine is the use of
medical information exchanged from on
Strategies implemented to combat a Potential Pandemic
Public Health strategies are often implemented to combat pandemics such as SARS and H1N1.
There were different types strategies that was put forth but had many substantial drawbacks. The
H1N1 Immunization Program
In June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) publicized, the beginning of the
influenza pandemic and classified the influenza pandemic as phase 6 (highest level).H1N1 flu is
also known as swine flu due to the people who caug
Unit 2 Atoms and Elements
Chemistry Review Questions
P288 Review Questions
3) F Alkali metals do not react with Nobel Gases
4) F A chlorine ion has 1 more electron than a chlorine atom
5) F Temper cases copper to become stronger and less malleable
6) F No