the study of heredity
and variation of living
organisms and how
genetic information is
passed from one
generation to the
up of two long
strands that form a
spiral shape called a
molecule can be
Prokaryotes have one chromosome
Chromosome consists of a
circular DNA molecule
Some prokaryotes also have
John Cairn used autoradiography to measure the length of DNA
Gregor Mendel (Father of
Austrian (part of Austria now Czech) monk
Experimented with pea plants (Pisum sativum)
Recognized posthumously for establishing
rules of heredity
These rules now called
Cladistics (IB 5.4)
The ancestry of groups of species can be deduced by
comparing their base or amino acid sequences.
Nature of Science:
Falsification of theories with one theory being
superseded by another-plant families have been
Mendels Law of Segregation
Mendel concluded that there must be
hereditary factors for each trait he studied
Today we call these factors alleles
Law of Segregation: inherited traits are
determined by the pairs of factors that
segregate into eac
5.1 Evidence for
Essential idea: There is overwhelming evidence
for the evolution of life on Earth.
Overview of Evolution:
Evidence for Evolution:
Theory of Evolution
Theory vs Law
Explanation for an observation or series of
observations that is substantiated by a considerable
body of evidence (Krimsley, 1995)
Set of observed regularities expressed in a concise
verbal or mathematical
1.1 - Unicellular Organisms
*Unicellular organisms consist of only one cell.
* What functions are necessary for these organisms to live?
3.2 Chromosomes - Worksheet
1. What are plasmids? In which type of cells can they be found?
2. Human DNA contains 46 chromosomes with over 3 billion bases, how is all this DNA packed inside
the nucleus of a cell?
3. What are homologous chromosomes?
1.1 Introduction to Cells
Skill: Calculation of the magnification of drawings and the actual size of structures and ultrastructures shown in
drawings of micrographs. (Practical 1)
1. Determine the length (longest side) of the nucleus
shown in th
To put viral size into perspective, a medium sized virion
next to a flea is roughly equivalent to a human next to a
mountain twice the size of Mount Everest.
Events in the
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
Defence against Infectious
The human body has structures and
processes that resist the continuous
threat of invasion by pathogens.
How does our body protect us from pathogens
The first line of
defence are the surface
Estimating Field of View and Magnification & Drawing Scale Bar
Part A: Estimating the Field of View and Total Magnification
1. Place a transparent metric ruler under the low power objective of a microscope.
2. Focus the microscope on the scale of th
5.3 Classification of Biodiversity
Application: Recognition features of porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelida, mollusca, arthropoda, and
Species in the animal kingdom are divided into over 30 phyla based on their characteristics.
1.1 - Stem Cells
* What are stem cells?
https:/www.youtube.com/watch?t=12&v=ZE_deAJgdSA (induced pluripotent stem cells)
* Use of stems cells to treat Stargardts d
In this activity, you will use a computer model to look at chromosomes and prepare a karyotype. You will diagnose
patients for abnormalities and learn the correct notation for characterizing karyotypes.
Site 1: Genetic Sc
1.1 Questioning the Cell Theory
Does the structure of the organism or tissue conform to the Cell Theory?
Nature of Science (3.1): Looking for trends and discrepancies-although most organisms conform to cell theory,
there are exceptions.
Worksheet - Bacteria Review
1. Name the structure shown below. _
2. Label the parts of the structure shown below.
3. Name the two kingdoms of bacteria. List at least one way these two kingdoms differ from each other.
4. Describe two different types of rol
Origin of Life on Earth
Scientific American (September, 2009)
How does the RNA-first hypothesis solve the paradox of how life began?
Why might DNA have appeared as a more permanent form of genetic storage?
What molecular fossil does each of us ca
Topic 3: Genetics
Use online resources and research information to accurately complete the following table:
Number of Genes
5.3 Classification of Biodiversity
Application: Recognition features of bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophyta and angiospermophyta.
Most plants can be classified into one of four phyla:
1. All living things are made of cell(s), the cell is the basic unit of life, and cells arise from preexisting cells
2. a) If a cell were to get too big, eventually surface area would exceed volume and osmosis would
not get to all parts of the cell making
1.1 Introduction to Cells
Essential idea: The evolution of multicellular organisms allowed cell specialization and cell replacement.
Nature of Science (NoS):
Looking for trends and discrepancies-although most organisms conform to cell theory, there are
IB 6.3 Defence Against Infectious Disease
Essential Idea: The human body has structures and processes that resist the continuous threat of invasion
Nature of Science: Risks associated with scientific research-Florey and Chains tests o
There are three main fluid compartments of the body.
Cytoplasm in cells
Fluid between cells (interstitial fluid)
Fluid of the blood.
Water makes up 60% of body.
Body contain inorganic matter (ions) and organic matter (nutrients, called
Circulatory System: Transports gases, nutrients, chemical substances and waste products.
Regulates internal body temperature.
Protects against blood loss from injury and prevents foreign attacks.
Composed of heart, blood vessels and blood.
Gene Flow (migration): Genes move in/out changing the frequency and may introduce new
Exchange genes with other populations.
Reduces genetic differences between populations
Non-random mating: mates due to a characteristic, trait is passed on.
Bio Review Evolution
Exobiology: study of life outside our planet.
Origin of life:
Theories: prebiotic synthesis of amino acids, lipids and other organic molecules.
Scenarios: 1. ocean surface/tidal pools on warm days
2. As passengers of comets/meteors