Need to Know - FINAL
1. What is cancer?
It is a disease of the cell.
Mutant cells divide and reproduce rapidly.
2. What is cell division named? Why do cells need to divide (3 reasons)?
Cell division is named the CELL CYCLE
Cells need to divide for reprodu
1. What are the three divisions of the PNS (peripheral nervous system)?
SNS (Somatic Nervous System), ANS (Autonomic Nervous System), and ENS (Enteric
2. What are the functions of the SNS in terms of sensory? What are the differ
Need to Know #2 - ANSWER KEY
1. Life is _
2. What four classes is polymers are composed of carbon?
1-carbohydrates 2-proteins 3-nucleic acids (DNA & RNA) 4-lipids
3. Organic chemistry is the study of _
4. What do we mean by o
Need to Know - ANSWER KEY
1. What is biology?
Biology is the study of life.
2. How do emergent properties and reductionism fit with this? Define emergent
properties and reductionism.
As life moves from microscopic to biosphere new properties emerge at eac
Exam 3 - Need to Know
1. What system is the master controller and communicator? Explain the three
functions of the nervous system.
The nervous system is the master controller and communicator. The three
functions are 1. sensory; afferent (sensation) (tran
Need to Know #3
1. What is bioenergetics?
Bioenergetics is the study of energy in living systems.
2. Define energy. What are its two major forms?
Energy is the capacity to cause change and is required by all organisms. It exists as
potential and kinetic e
Exam 2 Practice
1. What is the largest organ of the body?
2. What are the functions of the skin?
To protect from the sun, microbes, trauma, and pollutants
3. What are the layers of the skin?
4. Describe the epide
Need to Know #1
1. Define anatomy.
The study of the shape and structure of body parts
2. Define physiology.
The branch of biological science that studies and describes how body parts work
3. What are the 6 levels of structural organization in
Origins of Microbiology
A Rapid Overview
In order to have an appreciation of today's
microbiological database, it is necessary to
step back in time and see how Microbiology
From earliest days (Leviticus), the Jews were
aware that leprosy and go
Sources and Transmission of Infection
There are three sources of disease-causing
organisms in man:
1. Human beings (the MOST important)
2. Lower animals (much less important)
3. Inanimate nature (fomites relatively
unimportant depending on you
Growth and Multiplication of
There are four phases of bacterial growth [and death]: the lag phase
is in black; the log phase is in blue; the stationary phase is in red;
the death or decline phase is in green.
The use of Durham tubes: tiny tub
Cells of Microbiology
Study of life
Study of animals
Study of microbes
Study of plants
Study of algae
Study of protozoans
Study of bacteria
Study of fungi
Staining Reactions of MicroOrganisms
Staining Reactions of Microorganisms
All staining techniques begin with preparing the sample. This involves one
of two methods:
1. Mark a target circle on a microscope slide with a China marking pencil
The process of destroying all forms of microbial life. A
sterile object is free of living microorganisms.
An agent, usually chemical, that kills the growing forms but
not necessarily the
qd = every day
bid = twice a day
tid = three times a day
qid = four times a day
hs = at bed time
ac = before eating breakfast
pc = after eating a meal; generally 2 hours
prn = as necessary
SGOT = serum glutam
AIDS An Introduction
Brief AIDS History
1872. First description of Kaposis
1950. PCN effective against most
1952. Probably initial case of AIDS in
Ca 1960. OCPs
Late 70s. Sharp rise in STDs among
1980. Discovery of first HTLV: firs
Anti-Microbial Drug Resistance
Terms and Definitions
Genotype: genetic organization
Phenotype: expression of the genotype
Both discussed in BIOL 190, 191, 208, 223, 224
New Terms and Definitions
Selection: phenotypic variation due to genotype, e.g
Identification of Bacteria: Citrate Utilization Test.
There are a series of biochemical tests which are useful for the identification
of, particularly, the gram negative enteric rods. These four tests are VogesProskauer, Methyl Red, Indole Pr
The Respiratory System
The branch of medicine that deals with the
diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the
ears, nose and throat
Respiratory System Constituents
Consists of nose,
Cardiovascular System - Blood
1. CV System: Blood, Heart and Blood
2. Blood: the red body fluid that flows
through all the vessels EXCEPT the
Blood: Physical Characteristics
1. Blood is viscous (sticky) abou
The Digestive System
Mechanical digestion is
accomplished by teeth (chewing),
grinding (on the rugae ["wash
boards"] of the stomach) and
segmentation ("churning" in the
Peristalsis is the segmental
contraction and stricture of
The Fetal/Neonatal Kidney
Water and Electrolyte Balance
Are paired, bean-shaped
Just above the waist b
Exercise for EKG Interpretation
This will be minimal as you have had more than enough to read on the subject. The
normal range for the P-R interval is 160-180 ms; the normal QRS interval is 60-100 ms;
the normal Q-T interval for a rate of 70
Pathogens of a Dental Nature:
A Qualitative Method for the Rapid Detection of the Risk
of Dental Caries on Snyder Test Agar
Dental caries is a major problem in this country even with health insurance
being available to many in our society. Ma
Identification of Bacteria. IV. Bile Aesculin Agar
for the Determination of Enterococci
Another of the various diagnostic tests one may perform to identify bacteria is
the determination of bacterial growth on Bile Aesculin agar. This medium c