Chapter 19: The Cardiovascular System: The Blood
FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD
1. Define the transportation, regulation, and protection functions of the blood.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOOD
2. Provide values for the physical parameters of the
1. Explain how the heart pumps blood into two separate closed circuits that are arranged in
series. (4 marks)
The heart pumps blood into two closed circuits named the pulmonary and systemic circuits.
These circuits are arranged in series which means the o
1. Describe the five main types of blood vessels as you explain the flow of blood between
the heart and the tissues. (6 marks)
The five main types of blood vessels are arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins.
Arteries carry blood away from th
1. Describe what is happening in the diagram. (1 mark)
This diagram shows the three stages of inflammation in response to a tissue injury:
1. Vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels
2. Phagocyte emigration
3. Tissue repair
2. Describe wha
1. Identify and discuss the factors that contribute to systemic vascular resistance. (3 marks)
Systemic vascular resistance is the opposition to blood flow due to friction between blood
and the walls of blood vessels. It is dependent on the size of the bl
1. Describe the neural, chemical, and physical changes that increase the rate and depth of
ventilation during exercise. (4 marks)
Neural changes occur at the start of exercise and abruptly increase ventilation. These
following neural changes send excitato
1. Describe the inward forces of elastic recoil, and explain why the lungs do not normally
collapse during expiration. (3 marks)
Elastic recoil is the ability of the chest wall and lungs to spring back after they have been
stretched. These elastic fibers
1. What are the possible fates of pyruvic acid in the body? What is the primary determinant
of the fate of pyruvic acid? What is the fate of compounds to which pyruvic acid may be
converted? (2 marks)
The fate of pyruvic acid primarily depends on the avai
1. Describe the structures and functions of the enteric nervous system. (4 marks)
The ENS consists of 100 million neurons that extend from the esophagus to the anus. These
neurons are arranged into two plexuses: the submucosal plexus in the submucosa and
1. Describe the structural characteristics of the small intestine that enhance its function as
the major absorber of nutrients. (1 mark)
About 90% of all nutrient absorption occurs in the small intestine. This is due to many
reasons, including its overall
1. Describe the negative feedback loop that controls the rate of erythropoiesis. Under what
circumstances would you expect the rate of erythropoiesis to be increased? How would it
be possible to tell if the rate of erythropoiesis is elevated? (3 marks)
1. Explain the proposed role of hemoglobin in the maintenance of blood pressure. (2 marks)
Hemoglobin is an oxygen-carrying protein which gives blood its red colour. Nitric oxide,
which is a gaseous hormone produced by the endothelial cells that line bloo
8. Using the following DNA template strand sequence, answer the questions
a. What is the mRNA sequence?
b. List the anticodons for each tRNA involved in translation of the sequence.
c. What is the final sequence of amino acids in
Chapter 21: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF BLOOD VESSELS
1. Identify the different types of blood vessels in the body.
2. Describe the functional properties of arteries.
3. Explain ho
Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM ANATOMY
1. Describe the organization of lymph vessels.
2. Describe the general cellular structure, distribution, and operation of lymphatic
capillaries; then note the specia
Chapter 23: The Respiratory System
1. Define the three basic processes of respiration: pulmonary ventilation, external
respiration, and internal respiration.
2. State Boyles law.
3. Discuss how Boyles law works thr
Chapter 24: The Digestive System
OVERVIEW OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
1. Identify the organs of the gastrointestinal tract and the accessory organs of digestion.
2. List and define the six primary processes of digestion performed by the gas
Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition
1. Generalize the way in which nutrients are processed through the three major
metabolic fates in order to perform various energetic and structural functions in the
Chapter 26: The Urinary System
OVERVIEW OF KIDNEY FUNCTION
1. List and describe the functions of the kidneys.
2. Describe the two major portions of a nephron and the capillaries that surround a
3. In the order that flu
Chapter 27: Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Homeostasis
FLUID COMPARTMENTS AND FLUID BALANCE
1. Describe the various fluid compartments of the body and tell where fluid can move
2. Discuss the effect of osmolarity on wate
Chapter 28: The Reproductive System
MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
1. List the major components of the male reproductive system and their general functions.
2. Explain the structure of the testes.
3. Explain the functions of the seminiferous
Chapter 29: Development
1. Differentiate between embryological development and fetal development.
First Week of Development
2. Describe the process of fertilization, including capacitation and how the sperm
1. Trace the flow of a water molecule through the nephrons from the afferent arteriole to
the minor calyx. (6 marks)
Water begins in the afferent arteriole and flows into the glomerulus, where it is filtered into
the Bowmans capsule and adds to the glomer