Running head: LINGUISTIC UNIVERSALS
Linguistic Universals: Innate Biological Mechanisms or Results of Human Interaction?
Linguistic universals are the principles that apply to all natural la
Running head: SPEECH ERRORS
Speech Errors: Developmental Mechanisms and Slips of the Tongue
A speech error is any deviation from the intended form of an utterance. Speech
errors can move, substitute
Prepare a 24 page, point-form responses to each of the following questions:
If languages can differ from one another, then one might ask:
1. Are there any restrictions on the ways in which languages can differ from one
another, and if
Running head: CULTURE, GOALS, AND GENDER
Culture, Goals, and Gender: Factors that Alter Speech
CULTURE, GOALS, AND GENDER
Language is more than just words. It is a powerful social behaviour that provides
For this fieldwork project investigating puns and riddles told by children, I interviewed 7
different children of varying ages and genders. The jokes that they each told me are listed below:
Prepare a point-form response to the following question:
What kinds of language change are there?
Language change takes place gradually over a long period of time, and can occur
at any and all levels of the linguistic system.
Across-the-board change: a linguistic change that affects all forms in a
given class without exception.
Affix loss: a process of change in which affixes are dropped from use.
Analogy: the process of generalizing a relationship from one set of
Affix: a bound morpheme that modifies the meaning or grammatical
category of the stem in some way.
Agglutinating language: a language that makes extensive use of
polymorphemic words (words that contain a root and one or more affixes),
whose affixes are cl
Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical properties of speech
Affricate: a speech sound produced when a stop is followed by a slow
release of air, a characteristic of a fricative.
Alveolar: a speech sound produced by moving the tongue against
Allophones: variants of a phoneme that are predictable and do not
produce a change of meaning.
Articulation: the manner in which sounds are produced by movements of
the organs of speech.
Click: a consonantal sound used in some languages as a consonant; in
Allophones: conditioned variants of a phoneme. These variable sounds
are perceived by the speakers of a language to be the same sound, and
their slight differences are predictable from their position in a segment of
sounds. For example, the [l] in the Eng
Unit 1 End of Chapter Questions
1. What are some of the functions of communication?
The transmission of information to affect behaviour of others
To send messages about yourself or the environment
To make change
2. What do all communication systems hav
Unit 2 End of Chapter Questions
Dont yu n t
n pl iz gd tu it
h iz md in j a
wil hi kis h
we iz hi
Give me liberty or give me death
Play it again
August 12, 2016
Linguistic Genocide: Forces Reducing Linguistic Diversity
Language has acquired a vital role in our culture, and is the face of our identities. To date,
there has been an estimated five to
Unit 1: The Study of Language and the Nature and Origins of Human Languages
Anatomists: scientists who study the physical structure of plants, animals, and humans.
Anthropocentric: human centered; implying a bias in the viewpoint.
Aphasia: the loss or imp
Gelada Baboons: The Battles of Braveheart
How do females gauge their male leaders strength and commitment?
What is the common goal that binds bachelor groups?
How have sexual signals evolved differently in geladas, and why?
How do reside
Conservation Case Study:
Using traditional taboos in biological
conservation: the case of Colobus
vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema, Ghana
Children of the Gods/
Representatives of the Gods
Boabeng / Daworoh / Female /
Fiema / Abodwo / Male /
Highly paid job medical specialist making about 400,000/year. Physicians
and dentists are next. University President is the highest occupational status
but is not the highest paid.
Income, Power, Prestige
Krahn and Lowe
All men are created equal
Canada is the land of opportunity
Education is the great equalizer
Things that Canadians value:
Multi-cultural, freedom of expression, democracy, bilingualism, universal health care
The bonobo Kanzis lexigrams
(bonobo in Ape Genius):
lexigrams are symbols that
Bonobo Hope Great Ape Trust Sanctuary
Kanzi, Pan paniscus,
35 years old
1) What is the historical context is which these events occurred?
- Began in 1945 after years of depression and war
2) What issues of social stratification and equality were present?
- Racial and gender discrimination, denied access to so