What were the important occurrences between Peter I and Catherine II?
It was during this period that the Petrine Reforms were consolidated and expandedthere was, however, some
internal instability. There was a problem of success
Russia in the Napoleonic Age_
Who was Tsar Alexandr I?
The most important events of Alexandr Is reign were the defeat of Napoleon and the attempts at reforming
serfdom. The former succeeds, whereas the latter does not. He was educated by a western tutor,
Describe the character and early life of Peter I the Great.
Peter I the Great (r. 1682-1725) was physically imposing, with a powerful presence. He was intelligent and
largely self-taught, but without any formal educationhe acquired over tw
How did Moscow begin to emerge as a Russian power after the Mongol invasion?
By the beginning of the 14th century, the principality of Moscow became the centre of an increasingly
centralised state. It was itself important for six reasons
Time of Troubles & the Early Romanovs_
What was the Russian dynastic crisis of the early seventeenth century?
After Ivans son Theodore, died, there began a crisis of succession. Boris Godunov became Tsar, chosen by the
Zemskii-Sobor; however, he soon beca
What were the origins of the Kievan Rus?
The first Russian state at Kiev occurred between 882-1054. It began by being populated by self-led and
autonomous Slavic and Finnish tribes, who were plundered by the Varangians in the 9 th century. How
What are Russias basic geographical features?
At Imperial Russias height, it occupied one sixth of the earths land mass. The climate is harsh, with arctic
temperatures in the north and arid, desert temperatures in the south. There ar
Early Medieval Europe and Christendom
The Early Middle Ages and Christendom
How did Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire transform early medieval Europe?
From the chaotic ashes of the collapse of central authority arose the Carolingian Empire under Char
VIII. The Industrial Revolution
[The industrial revolution began as an economic phenomenon, but quickly became a social and political
transition that fundamentally changed Europe, and the rest of the world.]
What was the Industrial Revolution?
Early Medieval Europe and Christendom
The Heirs of the Roman Empire
What defined Europe after the decline of the Western Roman Empire?
After Roman central authority disintegrated, Europe was replaced with three realms: medieval Europe, the
Ancient Roman Civilization Empire and fall of the West
How was the Roman Empire characterised under Augustus?
The reign of Octavian heralded the beginning of two centuries of peace and prosperity, called the Pax Romana.
Octavian was a very shrewd leader,
Ancient Roman Civilization Monarchy and Republic
What conditions led to the beginnings of Roman civilization?
Favourably to the future Roman people, the Italian peninsula is geographically isolated and well protected,
with fertile plains on the coasts and
Ancient Greek Civilization
Who were the predecessors to the ancient Greeks?
The Minoans lived on the island of Crete, from 2000-1450BCE. They were economically prosperous and lived
in lavishness, prospering in trade. A natural disaster destroyed the Minoa
VII. The French Revolution & Napoleon
[The French Revolution was a radical change in government induced by violenceit was seen, by Karl Marx,
as the end of feudalism and the beginning of capitalism. It was relatively schizoid in feature, idealising the
VI. The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
[The Enlightenment was preceded by the Scientific Revolution, which was a radical change in thought among
scientists. The former took those ideas and applied them to non-scientific fieldstogether, they were
V. English Constitutionalism
What is the definition of constitutionalism?
A constitutional government is one that is limited by lawthis concept has become a major political current in
western governments. In England, there is a monarchy by which the sover
IV. French Absolutism
What is the definition of absolutism?
A government is absolutist when all power is invested in the ruler or rulers, and this power is not limited by
any other body or organizationno one may oppose it. It emerged in the seventeenth ce
III. The Protestant Reformation, Counter-Reformation, and Religious Wars
[In general, there was a break over doctrinal differences, and ended up as a great political fallout. The
Protestant Reformation began in the sixteenth century in Germany under Marti
II. The Renaissance
When was the Italian Renaissance, how did it begin and of what did it consist?
An infusion of wealth and the recovery of European trade are essentially what allowed the cultural
phenomenon of the Renaissance to occur. There was a new t
I. The Crises of the Middle Ages
How did the Roman Catholic Church fall into decline in the fourteenth century?
Prior to this time period, the church was solely a spiritual institution with secular goals. However, when King
Phillip IV (r. 1285-1314) and P