1. A powerful way to demonstrate that observed differences between a
treatment group and a control group truly reflect the effect of the treatment
is for researchers:
a. to get their study published in a scientific journal.
b. make more observations.
An Electron Transport Chain
Connects the two photosystems
Product #1 of the Photo Portion of
Product #2 of the Photo Portion of
A mechanical analogy of the light-dependent
reactions ( the photo portion)
Evidence supporting the oxidative
stress theory of aging
1) Reduction of antioxidant defense enzymes
accelerates age-related decline in physiological
function & shortens lifespan in certain animals
2) Chemicals that increase cellular ROS, or continuous
1. Life gains most of its energy from:
c) sugar molecules.
e) carbohydrate molecules.
2. Which one of the following statements best represents the relationship between
respiration and photosynthesis?
Review for test 1
1. A red blood cell was placed in a beaker of solution. The cell immediately began to swell
and ultimately burst. This happened because the cytoplasm of the cell was
_ to the solution in the beaker, which was _.
a. hypertonic; hypotonic
Short answer questions
Be able to describe the difference between covalent,
ionic, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces.
Know the basic structures of the macromolecules, how
they are assembled and disassembled, and their main
Be able to desc
An atom can be changed into an ion by adding or
a. a neutron.
b. an orbital shell.
c. an electron.
d. a proton.
e. an isotope.
In science, theories tend to be _
a. more experimental
b. more empirical
c. less scientific
A food label on a package of rice provides information about how
many grams of protein are in a serving of rice. What additional
information is necessary for you to effectively guide your daily
a. The number of kilocalories in each s
A negative statement that proposes that there is no relationship
between two factors is referred to as a _
2. In clinical trials for a new drug, the control group is given a
_ which does not have the active ingredient
in the drug.
Photosynthesis in detail: the
captured energy of sunlight is
used to make food.
The Calvin Cycle
Series of chemical
Occurs in stroma
The Processes in the Calvin Cycle
Occur in Thre
Controlling variables makes
experiments more powerful.
to Most Experiments
any experimental condition applied to individuals
2. Experimental group
a group of individuals who are exposed to a particular
3. Control g
Statistics can help us to make
Statistics - a set of analytical and mathematical
tools designed to help researchers gain
understanding from the data they gather.
An experimental test uses a small subgroup or
sample of a population
How do living organisms fuel their
actions? Cellular respiration: the
Food is fuel
Remember ATP Molecules?
exchange, this time from food
molecules into ATP by cellular respiration
The third step
in cellular respiration: ATP is
built in the electron transport
key features of mitochondria are essential
to their ability to harness energy from
Feature 1: mitochondrial bag-within-a-bag
Photons cause electrons in chlorophyll to
enter an excited state
of electromagnetic energy into
chemical energy of bonds between atoms
of specific wavelengths bump electrons
up a quantum level into an excited state
Photosynthesis takes place in the
Organelles found in plant cells
plants, photosynthesis occurs in
chloroplasts, a green organelle packed in cells
near the plants surfaces.
Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Chapter 4: Energy
From the sun to you in two easy steps
Understand and be able to explain the
How energy flows from the sun and through all life on earth
How photosynthesis uses energy from sunlight to make
As energy is captured and converted,
the amount of energy available to do
Only ~1% of the energy released by the sun that earth
receives is captured and converted by plants.
Converted into chemical bond energy
plants thrive in hot, dry conditions
that reduce evaporative water
How do plants use water?
Photosynthesis and water
Plant leaves have large SA: volume, which can
lead to evaporative water
Three of the ten steps yield energy
quickly harnessed to make ATP.
High-energy electrons are transferred to NADH.
each glucose molecule broken down into two
molecules of pyruvate
ATP molecules produced
NADH molecules store high-
Pseudoscience and misleading anecdotal
evidence can obscure the truth.
How to Prevent Being Taken in or
Fooled by False Claims
two types of scientific evidence that
frequently are cited in the popular media and
are responsible for people erroneo
Thinking like a scientist: how
to use the scientific method
Which statement or question below is a
hypothesis for the validity of eyewitness
1. Is eyewitness testimony always correct?
2. Eyewitness testimony is always correct.
3. If eyewitness
Where does plant matter come from?
Photosynthesis: the big picture.
From a seed
to a tree:
Plants arent the only
Photosynthesis: The Big Picture