Chapter 9 and 10
Human population growth
Reached 6.8 bilion in 2010 (double the number of ppl in 1960)
o Increased use of energy and resources
o Now its roughly increase 1 billion ppl every 13 years
o Human population used to be stable until industrial r
Chapter 7 Life history
Case study: Nemo
2-6 clownfish spend their entire adult lives within 1 sea anemone but are not
largest fish = female, second largest = breeding male
remaining fish = immature non breeders
life history = record of
Chapter 8 Population Distribution and Abundance
Case study: Kelp forest to Urchin Barren
Are very diverse organisms and are dense forest like stands (bornw)
Urchin barrens many sea urchins, very little kelp, low species diversity
o sea urchains bite thr
Chapter 4: Physiological Ecology
Case study: frozen frogs
Some animals withstand semi frozen state
They survive winter in shallow burrows with no heartbeat, no blood
circulation and no breathing
Very few vertebrates can withstand freezing
o In most org
Chapter 2 The Physical Environment
Concept 2.1 Climate as the fundamental component of physical environment
Weather- current condition (temperature, precipitation, humidity, cloud cover)
Climate- long term description of weather based on averages and vari
Chapter 6 Evolution and Ecology
Case study: Trophy Hunting and inadvertent Evolution (Bighorn Sheeps)
Population have been reduced by 90% by hunting, habitat loss etc
Trophy hunting is now illegal
o They remove the largest and strongest males- they are
Chapter 3 The Biosphere (no need to know the case study)
Everything living on planet lives within a thin layer of earths surface: the
THE BIOSPHERE the zone of life on earth
o Lies between lithosphere (earths crust) and troposphere (lowe
Chapter 3 Biosphere
Concept 3.1 Terrestrial biomes characterized by growth forms of the dominant
Biosphere- zone of life on earth between lithosphere (the crust) and the
troposphere (lowest layer of atmosphere)
4 things to consider when definin
Concept 1.1 Connections in Nature
Ecology- the study of how organisms affect and are affected by other organisms and
1. Make observations
2. Form a question
3. Form a hypothesis
4. Make a testable prediction (
Chapter 2- The Physical Environment
Physical environment determines where organisms can live and the
resources that are available
2.1 Climate is the most fundamental component of the physical environment
Weather current conditions (temperature, precipita
A negative statement that proposes that there is no relationship
between two factors is referred to as a _
2. In clinical trials for a new drug, the control group is given a
_ which does not have the active ingredient
in the drug.
A food label on a package of rice provides information about how
many grams of protein are in a serving of rice. What additional
information is necessary for you to effectively guide your daily
a. The number of kilocalories in each s
An atom can be changed into an ion by adding or
a. a neutron.
b. an orbital shell.
c. an electron.
d. a proton.
e. an isotope.
In science, theories tend to be _
a. more experimental
b. more empirical
c. less scientific
Short answer questions
Be able to describe the difference between covalent,
ionic, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces.
Know the basic structures of the macromolecules, how
they are assembled and disassembled, and their main
Be able to desc
1. A powerful way to demonstrate that observed differences between a
treatment group and a control group truly reflect the effect of the treatment
is for researchers:
a. to get their study published in a scientific journal.
b. make more observations.
Review for test 1
1. A red blood cell was placed in a beaker of solution. The cell immediately began to swell
and ultimately burst. This happened because the cytoplasm of the cell was
_ to the solution in the beaker, which was _.
a. hypertonic; hypotonic
1. Life gains most of its energy from:
c) sugar molecules.
e) carbohydrate molecules.
2. Which one of the following statements best represents the relationship between
respiration and photosynthesis?
Evidence supporting the oxidative
stress theory of aging
1) Reduction of antioxidant defense enzymes
accelerates age-related decline in physiological
function & shortens lifespan in certain animals
2) Chemicals that increase cellular ROS, or continuous
An Electron Transport Chain
Connects the two photosystems
Product #1 of the Photo Portion of
Product #2 of the Photo Portion of
A mechanical analogy of the light-dependent
reactions ( the photo portion)
Photosynthesis in detail: the
captured energy of sunlight is
used to make food.
The Calvin Cycle
Series of chemical
Occurs in stroma
The Processes in the Calvin Cycle
Occur in Thre
Controlling variables makes
experiments more powerful.
to Most Experiments
any experimental condition applied to individuals
2. Experimental group
a group of individuals who are exposed to a particular
3. Control g
Statistics can help us to make
Statistics - a set of analytical and mathematical
tools designed to help researchers gain
understanding from the data they gather.
An experimental test uses a small subgroup or
sample of a population
Thinking like a scientist: how
to use the scientific method
Which statement or question below is a
hypothesis for the validity of eyewitness
1. Is eyewitness testimony always correct?
2. Eyewitness testimony is always correct.
3. If eyewitness
Pseudoscience and misleading anecdotal
evidence can obscure the truth.
How to Prevent Being Taken in or
Fooled by False Claims
two types of scientific evidence that
frequently are cited in the popular media and
are responsible for people erroneo
Three of the ten steps yield energy
quickly harnessed to make ATP.
High-energy electrons are transferred to NADH.
each glucose molecule broken down into two
molecules of pyruvate
ATP molecules produced
NADH molecules store high-
plants thrive in hot, dry conditions
that reduce evaporative water
How do plants use water?
Photosynthesis and water
Plant leaves have large SA: volume, which can
lead to evaporative water
As energy is captured and converted,
the amount of energy available to do
Only ~1% of the energy released by the sun that earth
receives is captured and converted by plants.
Converted into chemical bond energy
Chapter 4: Energy
From the sun to you in two easy steps
Understand and be able to explain the
How energy flows from the sun and through all life on earth
How photosynthesis uses energy from sunlight to make