Basis of Magic
. Imitative magic: rituals that act out or portray the intended result(like produced likeness)
. Forms of voodoo
Contagious magic: the idea that things or people once in contact, can influence each other after contact is
Making a living
cross-cultural study of subsistence, production,
distribution (exchange) & consumption.
The concept of culture
Culture: sets of learned behaviors, ideas, beliefs,
values and ideals
Cultures: groups of people that share a common
may occupy a particular territory and speak a
Language & linguistics
Language: system of arbitrary symbols we use to
encode our experience of the world.
Can refer to things not present
Meaning is arbitrary
What is anthropology?
Holistic study of humanity
Broad in scope, geographically & historically
Integrates biological & cultural perspectives
traditionally focused on non-Western peoples
anthropologists now work
Anthropology and Language
Why Study Language
. To understand what makes human language different from other forms of
Symbol-something that represents something else
a gesture, a mark, a sound that stands for something else
. To understand th
Why Study Kinship
. Kinship determines lines of inheritance
. Kinship determines social obligations
. Kinship determines potential marriage partners
. Kin play important economic, social, political, and religious roles in most societies.
How many spouses?
-Monogamous marriages - only one spouse at a time (but serial monogamy is ok, you can marry again
-Polygyny: one man with several wives
-Polyandry: one women with several husbands
-group marriages: several men and several women ma
Types of Social Stratification
. Racial: based on the belief that some groups are biologically and/ or culturally inferior.
. Social Class: individuals with equal social rankings determined by a cultural evaluation system(achieved
. Caste: a form
1. The Azande live in a country that is riddled with disease. Witchcraft, however, is their biggest
problem and can affect their hunting rituals, livestock, and other elements of their lives.
Christianity offers an alternative for witchcraft; however, it
Functions of Political Systems
. to make decisions on behalf of the people
. exercise a form of social control
. Power: the ability to bring about results
. Authority: the ability to take action through an ascribed status or mo
Other Forms of Social Control
. Rewards(money, wards, etc)
. Rebellion- rebelling against particular parts of the system in place
. Revolution-completely rebelling against the authority(government), overthrowing them to establish a
new system etc.
-Models for the Origins of Domestication
-population growth models
-as populations grow, production of food becomes necessary, hunter/gatherer can
no longer support
-hard to tell if it was the population actually growing because nomadic
people are much mo
Marriage and Family
Anthropological Definition: culturally defined relationship between a man and a woman from different
families, which regulates sexual intercourse and provides for reproduction
. A set of rights the couple and their families obtain over