Chapter 4: Consciousness
Normal Consciousness is defined as:
Awareness of oneself
Levels of Consciousness
Conscious: external or internal stimuli of which a
person is aware; _
Preconscious: processes, thoughts, memories easily
Sleep & Dreams
Student Question: Why do we sleep?
Recuperative/_ theory: cell
Lack of sleep results in decreased immune
function, impaired mental processing, increased
stress hormones which can damage the brain
Study Objectives for Chapter 1 (Part 1, text pages 2-16): (both text and lecture material) include:
1. Define psychology. Distinguish between behaviour & mental/cognitive processes.
2. Identify and describe the goals of psychology. Provide examples for ea
Study Objectives & Lecture Notes, Chapter 3:
1. Define sensation and perception. Define transduction. What are sensory receptors?
2. What is psychophysics? Explain the concept of absolute threshold. Describe Webers Law and the
Study Objectives, Chapter 5: Learning
1. Define learning. How is it different from instincts & reflexes?
2. Define classical conditioning & the process involved in establishing a conditioned response.
3. Identify the UCS, CS, UCR, and CR in examples of cl
Study Objectives: Chapter 6, Memory.
1. Describe the information-processing model of memory. Distinguish between encoding, storage, & retrieval.
2. Define sensory memory & identify its limits. Distinguish between iconic & echoic memory. Summarize
Study Objectives, Chapter 7: Cognition and Intelligence
1. Define thinking. Distinguish between concepts (formal & natural), schemas, prototypes, and mental
images. Explain why concepts are important to the cognitive process. How are they established?
Memo Regarding Test #2
Test 2 will be written in our final class for the term on Wednesday, April 1st from 8:30-10:30 in
our usual classroom. It will cover Chapters 4-7 (all objectives from lecture & text material).
Remember, almost all test questions wil