UNIT 1: WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY?
What is psychology, what are the two types of psychology?
- Scientific Method
- Research Psychology
- Applied Psychology
- A variable OTHER than the independent variable that might affect the
Levine & Norenzayan (1999)
Interested in pace of life in 31 countries
- Walking speed; post office; accuracy of public clocks
Confound: a variable that you didnt account for that could affect your study and
Practice effects: getting better at something because youve done it before
Controls speech production (Brocas area)
A couple of thought questions
Sensory neurons-how do they represent variation?
How do neurons represent information and support mental abilities?
What happens to cognitive abilities when neurons supporting their function are
There seem to be as many definitions of intelligence as there were experts asked to
Intelligence is what is measured by intelligence tests
Nature or Nurture?
Definition of intelligence
Ability to learn from e
PROLOGUE (PSYC 102)
Psychology Science is Born
Before 300 B.C.E Aristotle theorized about learning and memory, motivation and
emotion, perception and personality.
Psychologys First Laboratory
(In Germany) December 1897, Wilhelm Wundt and his graduate stud
Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn
Developmental Psychologys Major Issues
Examines our physical, cognitive and social development across the lifespan, with a
focus on three major issues
Unit 14 Social Psychology
What is Schemas? What is the function of schemas?
How do schemas guide our emotion and
What is attitude? What are the three components
Unit 13 Therapy
What is the definition of psychotherapy? What are the two types of psychotherapy?
Perspectives of Disorder
Unit 12 Disorder
Perspectives of Psychological Disorder
According to psychologist, what is normal? How should we draw the line between normality
What is personality?
Unit 10 Personality
What is personality? Please provide a definition. What are the four questions asked by different
Measurement of Personality
theories of perso
Nature and Nurture
Unit 9 Development
Nature and Nurture
What causes the change to occur? Is it the nature or nurture? Briefly discuss the evidence of
both nature (ex., twin studies) and nurt
Using the Skinner Box
Rat presses button and food pellet comes out
o It influences that behaviour
Rat presses button and receives an electric shock
o It doesnt press the button
The Bystander Effect
- Diffusion of responsibility
- Pluralistic ignorance (majority of a group privately reject a norm, but
incorrectly assume that most others accept it, therefore go along with it)
- Audience inhibition
What is Psychol
Semantic: things in the world that we know but do not know when we learned the
Procedural memory: knowledge on how to do things
Priming: a memory is activated and it is easier to access in the near future
Did We Know It All Along? Hindsight Bias
Hindsight Bias: the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would
have foreseen it (a.k.a the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
- When psychologists told people that separation of a couple
Intelligence is the mental potential to learn from experience, solve problems and
use knowledge to adapt to new situations
Spearmans General Intelligence Factor and Thurstones Response
Believed that we have one gen
The Scientific Mind
Being sceptical but not cynical, open but not gullible
The scientists Toolkit
Not only critical thinking
-Formulate explanations as to how things work
- Integrated set of principles
Transduction of sound
Layer on the cochlea contain heir cells
Hair cells is where auditory transduction occurs
Different hair cells will process different sound frequencies
Ossicles bang on the cochlea, fluid in the cochlea to move, the moving
Curse of knowledge: better informed parties find it extremely difficult to think
about problems from the perspective of lesser-informed parties
False consensus bias: where a person tends to overestimate the extent to which
their beliefs or opini
Developmental prosopagnosia: being born with prosopagnosia (cannot recognize
Autism spectrum disorder
Eye gaze is important for learning language
o Linking object with words
o In autism it is hard to do so
Theory of mind: being able to un
Human research has a dark history
Nazis and medical research (1940s)
Twins, transplantation, freezing, malaria
Research conducted on POWs without consent
Coercion: forcing one to partake in an act involuntarily
No international legal code gover
The importance of eyes in social cognition
What is social cognition?
- Studying cognitive processes in a social setting
Why is it important?
- Cognition enables social interaction
- Cant talk about one without the other
Wada test: put half the brain to sleep and test language
People who are right handed, 95% have their language-oriented part of their brain
on their left hemisphere
Language and tool use go together hand-in-hand (in the same side of the brain)
From the environment to the brain
Receptor cells and transduction
How bright something is
How does pain look like?
Transduction: the process by which you take sensory information and
convert it to a neural signal
Sir Francis Galton
Genius is hereditary (heavily influenced by Darwin)
Eugenics (breeding a super human race, only the best traits)
- Tested reaction times of different races
- Says that White people have more cognit
UNIT 8: Emotion
What is emotion? What are the components of an emotion? Does emotion serve any function?
How can emotions be categorized? Discuss universal discrete emotion and the two dimension
theory of emotion
Autonomic Nervous S
UNIT 8: Motivation
Theory of Motivation
There are different ways one can view motivation system. Discuss different theories of
- Drive reduction
motivation; drive reduction theory, arousal theory, opponent process theory, incentive theories,
and Maslow hi
UNIT 7: Thinking and Language
Notes: please write in key words or point form (not much space). You may find the answer on Google, study guide, or text book.
Remember this worksheet helps you study for the final AP psychology exam, so you can do it however
PSYC: Chapter 1 Notes
Question: How does psychology span multiple levels of analysis?
Think of psychology as a ladder: social influences on top and biological influences on the
We gain new information from each rung
Question: What makes studying
Prospect of memory ability to manage our future in the absence of using tools and
Definition of Psychology: scientific study of behavior and the mind and their
o Mind is a function of the brain
SOCI: Chapter 1 Notes
Question: How do objective and subjective facts combine to form social theory?
Sociology focuses a lot on the pre-existing institutions in our lives, viewing them as
People exercise agency, which allows them to
Deemphasize importance of structural functionalism; starting point but no validity
How do people act in social groupings?
How can we use this knowledge (intervention) to better organize our relations?
SOCI Chapter 4 Notes
1) How do people act in different social groups?
2) How can we organize social groups to help people achieve their collective goals?
Question: How do functionalists view statuses and roles?
Norms are expectations about how to