Describe evolution as a change in allele frequency and differentiate it from the process of natural selection.
Evolution: (1) Any change in the genetic characteristics of a population over time, especially a change in allele frequencies.
-Distinguish polyploidy from diploidy and explain the ramifications of polyploidy in meiosis.
Haploid number: indicates the number of distinct types of chromosomes present.
- Human cells: n = 23, contains 23 distinct types of chromosomes
Ploidy: The com
-Determine the life history strategy of different organisms, with respect to fecundity and
survivorship, given experimental data.
Fecundity: The number of female offspring produced by each female in the population.
Fecundity and survivorship cant be simul
-Deduce from a pedigree whether a trait is autosomal or sex linked, dominant or recessive.
Pedigree: records the genetic relationships among the individuals in a family along with each
persons sex and phenotype with respect to the trait in question. If th
Describe the effect of global climate patterns and other physical and biological factors on
the distribution of species.
Biotic Factors: Interactions with other organisms.
- Competition with other species
- Exotic, Invasive species
- Parasites aff
Differentiate among gene, allele and locus and illustrate each with an example.
Gene Section of DNA that influences one or more hereditary traits in an individual. Example of
a certain characteristic: each copy of chromosome c found in grasshoppers might
-Infer the mode of inheritance (e.g., number of genes, dominance, linkage, sex linkage), given
data from experimental crosses. Describe genetic sex determination in animals and the
consequences of having genes on the X chromosome.
Sex Chromosomes: An indi
-Illustrate how dominant alleles provide sufficient gene function to confer a phenotype even
when only one copy is present, and how this differs from co-dominance and incomplete
Genotype: All of the alleles of every gene present in a given indi
Describe how Mendels principles of segregation and independent assortment are a
consequence of chromosome movement in meiosis.
Mendel: Two alleles of each gene must segregate into different gamete cells during the formation
of eggs and sperm in t
-Demonstrate (using simple diagrams or calculations) how sexual reproduction contributes
to genetic variation and to differences between parents and offspring. Illustrate with simple
diagrams how crossing over results in different gene combinations.