When an effect depends on a combination of causes
Version 1: More than one (almost) necessary cause the effect only happens
when more than one condition is present
o E.g. plant growth requires BOTH water & sunlight
Moving Across Types of Questions/Claims
Should the BC government spend more on welfare programs for the poor?
o Is it strictly a moral question?
What empirical questions would you first want to answer?
o What proportion of Briti
Descriptive, Prescriptive & Causal Questions
Prescriptive/normative questions: how should the world look?
Descriptive questions: how does the world look?
Causal questions: why does the world look the way it does? What is the cause of
this particular out
Just 23 years of inclusive rhetoric & policies turned violent anti-Semites into
courageous Good Samaritans
BUT Acknowledging Uncertainty
Most of these testimonies were recorded years after the Holocaust. This leaves
Affirmative action policies are important because equally opportunity is a right of
all citizens (normative)
Most employers only use affirmative action amongst equally qualified candidates
What causal questions do the following descriptive claims raise for you:
o 15% of countries around the world are fully institutionalized democracies
o In some European countries, extreme right-wing parties have sharply
How Important is Foreign Aid to Improving Poverty in the Developing World?
Clams based on personal experience
Claims based on the scientific method
Claims About the Effects of Foreign Aid
Villages that received foreign aid tended to have better infras
Necessary & sufficient conditions
Multiple & conjunctural causation
The rarity of sufficient conditions in the political world
Cause without which an effect cannot occur
o Democracy is a necessary condit
Examples (iClicker Questions)
BC should double its investments in public transit prescriptive/normative
Between 1990 & 2007, CO2 emissions increased by 35% in BC descriptive
Having Green Party members in a legislature makes a government mo
Ethnic divisions, hierarchy constructed by colonial power ID cards
Preferential treatment of Tutsis
Hutu Rebellion (1959)
Hutus assume leadership upon Rwandan independence (1962)
President Habyarimana (Hutu) in power
When there is more than one set of causes that can produce an effect
o A can cause E; or
o C can cause E
What can cause political leaders to loser power (E)?
o Military defeat (A)
o Economic decline (B)