opium and tobacco= medac form
incredibly popular in Southern China. Still being imported
Qing authorities started to take note of this
Medac was prohibited. Opium was still importable as medicine.
1796- comprehensive ban
1729 - 1796 brought by Portugese,
The trade was profitable. They sucked it up and tolerated. These merchants are now
becoming frustrated and by the fact that they cannot address these problems. NO
communication with Qing government.
The system was built on corruption. Hoppo. Everything ha
Chinese knew that they were dealing with Manchus
Life is good but there are problems now.
Heshen. the most powerful and richest member now. He wasnt scholars. picked
by Qianlong. He was deeply hated and resented. but Qianlong doted on Heshen.
so Heshen wa
Lecture 1 setting the scene
1. the Qing Dynasty
not ethnically Chinese/ bear in mind that it is alien conquest dynasty!
All actions make sense!
Manchus: semi nomadic people north-eastern China Manchuria.
North people, they need not have the advantage, liv
This war is about well beyond Canton and opium. Elliot doesnt understand this. He
thinks it is to improve the situation at Canton. -> so it is hard to say that burning of
opium was the master plan to trick Lin.
Captain Elliot never envisioned that his mes
Let us make the best out of it (minority) vs outrage/ entire premise of tributary system
has been violated : to reject the treaties and fight off, lobbying off aggressively.
The court is having a problem because most of these majorities are Chinese.
So Why no Meiji Miracle?
2) LSZ was also conservative. He was not a social/cultural/political reformer.
3) shortage of capital Qing government was broke. Indemnities that had to
be paid/rebellion. Regional officers did not have resources *
Not only military but also administrative/ this sets up stage for what happens after
the army becomes backbone of Qing/ Qings inability to fight against other
powers stems from this army system
(before banner men backed up by ethnic Chinese
What did all mean?
When Europeans reached the empire, they did so with expectation that Qing
empire will play by Europeans rule (could argue naive and arrogant) Europeans
frustration with the government/ (tried repeatedly to negotiate with European
Temple festivals- they refused/ this was a means of taxation for local elites.
and there was only little thing that these local officers could do about it,
because they would be sacked. so they took various steps: distributing antichristian and western pr