KEY Test 3 (2014), Physics Long Answer
1. (VERSION A and C) During the winter monsoon season, winds blow from the Northeast
along the Southeast coast of Oman. Wind speeds during the winter average around 5 m s-1.
On the map, draw a single arrow showing
Sept. 16th, 16
Elements are added to the ocean at a rate that is proportional to their concentration. They reside in the ocean for a
particular amount of time (residence time: ) before they are removed by various mechanisms.
When the rate of rem
Nov 9th, 16
We see more nutrient in the north pacific. It is not due to ocean upwelling or more solar radiation. It is due to wind
bringing nutrients in
Wind blowing on the water causes a stress, which is force per unit area, in the same directi
Sept 19th, 16
Planktons: 1)animals, protists (unicell.euk)
3) viruses (most abundant)
CAN not swim against a current.
-Autotrophs: primary producers like phytoplankton: make their own organic C
Sep 21, 16
o Very tiny, like to make gelatinous colonies (help with sinking and transporting C)
o Two flagella, spherical shaped
o Most common species is Emiliana Huxleyi
o Cause a white cloudish bloom at the shore
October 12th, 16
PS measured in O2 evalution, Co2 consumption, or appearance of organic C (mol C/ml)
Pg: Ps w/o measuring respiration. Pn: Ps with accounting for respiration of phytoplanktons growth if
normalized to Cla concentr.
Net: O-C accumu
Mixing: 1) molecular diffusion 2) turbulent
Turbulent eddies are much more effective at mixing the ocean, so thats why we focus on them when we
talk about mixing. These eddies can be mm to km wide.
How to generate turbulence:
October 28th, 16
In addition to CO2, which is never limiting, they need P and N for producing proteins and DNA.
Some also need Ca for making CaCO3 shells (cocolithophorids) and Si for making SiO2 opal sheets
(diatoms). These orga
Two Layer box model
We use a two layer box model to represent the flux of elements in the ocean. Top: 100 m, bottom: 3900 m.
This is due to the nutrient distribution, marking the euphotic zone (photo>resp, low nutrients) and apho
October 24th, 16
The tide generating force causes two bulges on earth, and we rotate under them once per day (we see two high
bulges every day, and two low ones)
the speed at which these tides move is diff from the force of gravity th
Sept 30th, 16
Light: happens in the lumen of the thylokoid stacks, requires O2, sunlight and water
Dark: happens in the stroma of the chloroplast, needs CO2, Rubisco, reducing agents.
Photoatrouphs use pigments to capture and trap the energy of
Oct 14th, 16
In tropics, light levels are optimal all year long, but as we move toward poles, the light levels vary seasonally
In the ocean, phytos are photoinhibited at the surface. They are at optimal light in 20-50 m. The light
2-layer model: makes things easier to understand!
Photosynthesis variations: at the top of the ocean, we get lots of light and lots of photosynthesis. At the
deeper depth, photosynthesis is insignificant. Light decreases exponentiall
Wind stress on the ocean can be approximated as
= a cW 2
where a = 1 kg m3 is the density of air, c 2 103 is the drag coecient and W is the
wind speed. A typical wind is 7.4 m s1 . Therefore
= 1 kg m3 2 103 (7.4 m s1 )2
= 0.110 kg m1 s2
September 14th, 16
The Hydrological Cycle
Water is distilled from the ocean by solar radiation. Vapour condenses and falls over land and ocean,
promoting chemical weathering and dissolving of rocks due to its acidity (CO2 dissolved in rain). The
Topic 2.1 a,b,c
The ocean is very thin compared to the diameter of the earth.
Nutrients: food, chemicals that phyto must eat from the surround water to grow
Topic 2.1.a: stratification
Water temperature and salinity changes from place to place. T
To measure the phytoplankton biomass: filter water through a 0.2 micrometer pore and count the chll a.
Primary Production: the stock of phytoplankton: a measure of their biomass
Can be #/ml , microg of chlla/ml , mole C / ml, total
Topic 1.1, 1.2
Salts, nutrients, salt and heat cycles-very important
TA: [email protected] , full name- Notes posted on connect- *Daily Assignments*
3 midterm tests-take the best two
First assignment due Friday, i-clicker on FridayWritten assig
Nov 4th, 16
A phytoplanktons grows up and takes up the nutrient, as they grow, the concent of nutrients decrease. The nutrient
that gets used up fastest is the one that limits their growth.
The daughters have the same composition
Sept 28th, 16
Sea temperature: high at equator and tropical, lower @ poles
IMPACT PATCH: Due to the angle of the sun that heats the surface, equator gets more solar radiation: more
heat. Same amount of heat distributed over a larger area.
Nov 14th, 16
Aleutian low, pacific high- icelandic low, Bermuda high
Move up and down a bit depending on the season
N-hemisphere: Winds are cw around H and ccw around the L
S-hemisphere: Winds are ccw around H and cw around the L
Sept 24th, 16
Some are able to fix their own N2
High SA/V, able to thrive in low nutrients environment
Able to use multiple sources of N (urea, NH4+. NO2-, NO3-)
Symbiotic with Prochlorococcus in low nutrient area
Geostrophy: the Coriolis force is balanced by the pressure gradient force
Pressure gradient on the contours:
contours: lines of equal pressure on the atmosphere
Lines are close: pressure is changing quite fast with distance
Pressure gradient is
Pressure: surface force, pushes down on any object it acts on.
Uniform pressure: no net force acting on the object, it gets squished (same force on all sides)
Non-uniform pressure: higher force on the side with higher pressure flatte
There are three forces in the ocean: gravity (down), pressure (from high to low) and friction
Friction slows down fluid near the bottom, and speeds it up near fast moving fluid.
We are modeling ocean in a non-inertial frame of reference
Photosynthesis & respiration
Learning Goals 2.7
Distinguish b/w net primary productivity & gross primary
how we can measure a
Diatoms & Dinoflagellates
- Armbrust E.V. 2009. The life of diatoms in the world's oceans.
Nature 459: 185-192 (for assignment 2.4):
- Waterbury, J. 2004. Little things matter a lot. Oceanus 43 (2): 1-5.
1. Describe nitrogen fixation & the ecological
role ofTrichodesmium in the global ocean.
2. Compare & contrast Prochlorococcus vs.
EOSC 372 TEST 1 : 2012
This exam has 4 pages.
Instructions are on page 4 of this exam.
This is exam packet (A). Indicate (A) in the Test
Form column on your Scantron sheet.
1. The formation of CaCO3 shells leads to:
A) an i