Coagulation and ﬂocculation are always used in sequence to 'prepare' water for further
treatment. Coagulation to destabilize and ﬂocculation to agglomerate.
Coagulation and flocculation is affected by mixing. Analy
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CIVL 406 7
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1. REACTIONS, RATES AND REACTORS
All environmental processes occur within deﬁned control volumes. which can be small
' Within a microbial cell (micro) “ out-3M l' XAS
' Within the earth s atmssphere (macro) . GWk
2. WATER QUALITY AND QUANTITY
2.1 Water Quality
2. 1.1 Why treat drinking water?
Regardless of its source rnw waters can contain contaminants of concern to human
health ' ' ‘ " ~ -
2. 1.2 Major typicai contaminants of concern
e To public (Q
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CIVL 406 m
6.3 Slow Sand Filters
As name implies, water flows more slowly than for engineeredfconventional media filters
5 LR t 5 - i 5 ta
- Slow sand filter:
SLR-.- o.oLf- am. ‘4
So for a given ﬂow, slow sand ﬁlters are 1
CIVL 406 56
6.1 ganwlgumegja rapid/engineered ﬁltration
Removal of particulate material through straining;impactionsiatﬂjﬂg andﬂgcnulatiort
Rapidfengineered granular media filters have two cycles of operation
- ﬂuratigh: water flows by g
CIVL 406 79
8. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WATER QUALITY
Over time, the pipe environment changes
i. Accumulation of sediment
ii. Formation of tubercles
iii. Pipe leaks/cracks and negative pressures
iv. Leaching of pipe material
The accumulation of sediments a
3. SYSTEMS FOR TREATING DRINKING WATER
The type of technology used depends on the type of water being treated and the
contaminants it contains
3.1 Types of Source Waters and Contaminants of Interest
3.1.1 Groun r
- Contaminants ' .