Chapter 2 How Sociology Works: Theories and Approaches
What is Social Theory?
Theory: conceptual scheme designed to explain observable regularities.
Theorizing: activity of trying to find explanations of observed phenomena.
What is a Sociological
Introduction: What we Mean by Culture and Why its Contested
Culture: knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person
to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or societ
Introduction to Sociology
What is Sociology?
Society is defined as a product of a relatively continuous and enduring interactions within a
political territory between people more or less identifying themselves as members maintained by
Deviance: any behavior, belief, or condition that violates cultural norms in the society or group
in which it occurs. It is Deviance
Deviance does not mean bad, wrong, perverted, sick or inferior in any way
Deviance is a catego
Social Inequality: long-term existence of significant differences in access to goods and services
among social groups (e.g., class, ethnicity, gender)
Class and Social Stratification
The main concept/
Social Research Methods
Introduction: Research Methodology
Research: scientific and systematic study for a pertinent information on a specific topic
Research methodology: system of methods a researcher uses to gather data on a particula
Race and Ethnicity
Race and Ethnicity
Race: human population considered distinct based on physical characteristics.
Ex. Negroid, Mongoloid, Caucasoid
Ethnic group: recognition by others aos a distinct group and by common cultural, ling
Chapter 6 Social Roles, Interaction, and Organization
Social structure: a guide to everyday living
Social interaction: process by which people act toward or respond to other people and s the
foundation for all relationships and groups in society
Socialization: lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a selfidentity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.
Primary socialization: social