What do soil
water & salted
fish have in
Soil Physics WATER (1)
Soil water energy
Soil water energy concepts
Soil water potential
Interactions of soil particles & water affect:
Amount of rain that runs into and throug
Dispersion and flocculation
Flocculation is a state
when primary particles (i.e.
clay particles) remain close
together due to inter-particle
forces (electrostatic, van der
Waals, and/or hydrogen
bonding) and form
Inferring the direction of water flow
Soil Physics -
Water potential gradient
Soil hydraulic conductivity
Summary of soil water section
Types of water movement
within the soil
Inferring the direction
of water flow
Terms of a qualitative soil
wetness describe various stages
Soil Physics Qualitative description of
along continuum of soil wetness,
and should not be interpreted to
imply that soil water exists in
Field capacity (FC)
Soil Physics -
Soil matric potential and water
Water retention characteristics
Equilibrium water level in capillary tubes
Soil matric potential &
In soil solution
Capillary rise equation h
-Factors of soil formation
Weathering refers to the breakdown and changes
in rocks and minerals at or near the Earths surface
produced by biological, chemical,
Soil physics is the branch of
soil science that deals with the
state and transport of matter and
transformations of energy in the
Soil Physics SOLIDS (1)
Soil as a 3-phase system
Soil as a 3-phase
Mass and volume relationship
To provide you with
fundamental knowledge and
understanding of soil science
Introduction to soil science
a) Introduce basic concepts and terminology
b) Synthesize and implement those concepts in
What is soil?
Soil in Perspective
Some important soil science terms
What is soil?
After Chorover et al, Catalina-Jemez CZO
Definition by horticulturists
Definition by engineers
Soil is the medium in which
BIOL 351 Midterm Review
ENERGY AND PLANT FUNCTION; CONCEPTS OF MASS TRANSPORT
Central Concepts and Energy Laws
Free Energy and Chemical Reaction Equilibria
Free Energy, Phosphorylation and Redox Reactions
Solute Accumulation and Electrochemical Potential
Unicellular organisms and some small metazoans lack circulatory systems, they transport
molecules by diffusion.
Most multicellular animals possess a transport system to transport & distribute materials
across the body.
In closed vascular systems the blood circulates through a series of blood vessels;
arteries, capillaries & veins.
Walls of the blood vessels are made of 3 layers:
Tunica intima or interna, the innermost layer of endothelium made of squamous
The degree to which Hb is saturated with oxygen at different oxygen partial pressures can be
depicted by a graph.
The greater the concentration or partial pressure of oxygen, the more saturated
Hb becomes with oxygen.
The graph is S-sh
The Cardiac Cycle
The cardiac cycle refers to the sequence of events which takes place during the
completion of one heartbeat. It involves repeated contraction and relaxation of the
heart muscle. Contraction is called systole and relaxation is called dias
Europa is one of the 4 Galilean moons of Jupiter
(discovered by Galileo himself in 1610)
It is only slightly smaller than the Earths Moon.
Reflected light indicates that the surface is
covered by water ice!
Could there be liquid water below? Could ther
What happens during an impact?
Evidence for big impacts on Earth?
Things that can hit Earth have:
Most asteroids arent a risk.
The problem objects are those
The first of Saturns 34 moons to be discovered. First seen
by Christiaan Huygens in 1655.
Radius: 2575 km
The second largest moon in our solar system. It is larger
than the planet Mercury.
Surface temperature: -178C
Density: ~3000 kg/m3
Lets look at 2 things in more detail:
a) Sea level change due to melting/floating of ice and
warming of ocean water
b) How quickly could global climate (and weather patterns)
People and ecosystems are pretty good at adapting to
change as long as t
What about large-scale,
They have happened here.
What were the effects?
Could they be responsible for
The KT Extinction
What killed the dinosaurs?
(and a lot of other things)
and Plate Tectonics
1) Describe the atmospheric
composition on Venus and
compare it with the Earths
Venus atmosphere consists almost entirely
of CO2 (96.5%). The rest is Nitrogen (3.5%),
and trace gases like sulphur dioxide.
Plate Tectonics on Mars?
Mars does not have plate tectonics now. It may have very early in
its history. Mars also does not have a dipole magnetic field now.
However, there is strong remanent magnetization in the crust so
Mars did have a dipole field
Io is one of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter
Diameter: 1820 km (slightly bigger than Earths Moon)
Density: 3570 kg/m3
Galileo Probe (1996-97)
Detected iron core: 896 km radius, half the diameter!
Detected a local distortion
You dont need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows
- Bob Dylan
The Earths climate is controlled by complex interconnections
between all of the Earths dynamic systems.
The previous sections focused on:
The interconnections between the Earths sub-