BIOL 351 Midterm Review
ENERGY AND PLANT FUNCTION; CONCEPTS OF MASS TRANSPORT
Central Concepts and Energy Laws
Free Energy and Chemical Reaction Equilibria
Free Energy, Phosphorylation and Redox Reactions
Solute Accumulation and Electrochemical Potential
Unicellular organisms and some small metazoans lack circulatory systems, they transport
molecules by diffusion.
Most multicellular animals possess a transport system to transport & distribute materials
across the body.
In closed vascular systems the blood circulates through a series of blood vessels;
arteries, capillaries & veins.
Walls of the blood vessels are made of 3 layers:
Tunica intima or interna, the innermost layer of endothelium made of squamous
The degree to which Hb is saturated with oxygen at different oxygen partial pressures can be
depicted by a graph.
The greater the concentration or partial pressure of oxygen, the more saturated
Hb becomes with oxygen.
The graph is S-sh
The Cardiac Cycle
The cardiac cycle refers to the sequence of events which takes place during the
completion of one heartbeat. It involves repeated contraction and relaxation of the
heart muscle. Contraction is called systole and relaxation is called dias
Europa is one of the 4 Galilean moons of Jupiter
(discovered by Galileo himself in 1610)
It is only slightly smaller than the Earths Moon.
Reflected light indicates that the surface is
covered by water ice!
Could there be liquid water below? Could ther
What happens during an impact?
Evidence for big impacts on Earth?
Things that can hit Earth have:
Most asteroids arent a risk.
The problem objects are those
The first of Saturns 34 moons to be discovered. First seen
by Christiaan Huygens in 1655.
Radius: 2575 km
The second largest moon in our solar system. It is larger
than the planet Mercury.
Surface temperature: -178C
Density: ~3000 kg/m3
Lets look at 2 things in more detail:
a) Sea level change due to melting/floating of ice and
warming of ocean water
b) How quickly could global climate (and weather patterns)
People and ecosystems are pretty good at adapting to
change as long as t
What about large-scale,
They have happened here.
What were the effects?
Could they be responsible for
The KT Extinction
What killed the dinosaurs?
(and a lot of other things)
and Plate Tectonics
1) Describe the atmospheric
composition on Venus and
compare it with the Earths
Venus atmosphere consists almost entirely
of CO2 (96.5%). The rest is Nitrogen (3.5%),
and trace gases like sulphur dioxide.
Plate Tectonics on Mars?
Mars does not have plate tectonics now. It may have very early in
its history. Mars also does not have a dipole magnetic field now.
However, there is strong remanent magnetization in the crust so
Mars did have a dipole field
Io is one of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter
Diameter: 1820 km (slightly bigger than Earths Moon)
Density: 3570 kg/m3
Galileo Probe (1996-97)
Detected iron core: 896 km radius, half the diameter!
Detected a local distortion
You dont need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows
- Bob Dylan
The Earths climate is controlled by complex interconnections
between all of the Earths dynamic systems.
The previous sections focused on:
The interconnections between the Earths sub-
A planets climate is controlled by complex interconnections
between many different dynamic systems.
The slides for this section will focus on:
What the forcing factors are on Earths climate system
The Earths heat budget and the Greenhouse effect.
APBI 311: Lab 1
EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ANATOMY OF THE FETAL PIG
1. To become familiar with the external and internal anatomy of mammals.
2. To understand the functions of the various organs and organ systems.
The pig is a member of the Phylum Ch
APBI 311: Lab 9
THE URINARY SYSTEM
1. To identify the gross and microscopic anatomy of the different components of the urinary
2. To understand the chemistry of urine.
The urinary system is the principal component for the water and elect
APBI 311: Lab 4
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
1. To become familiar with the gross anatomy of the mammalian brain (Sheep).
The nervous system is the bodys major regulatory and coordinating system. The nervous
system is the seat of all mental activity, incl
APBI 311: Lab 10
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
1. To study the gross and microscopic anatomy of the respiratory system.
2. To learn the lung volumes and the functions of the respirometer.
During the lab period, follow the instructions
APBI 311: Lab 2
1. To become familiar with different tissue types and to recognize them under a microscope.
2. To understand how the structure of the various tissues relates to their function.
A tissue is a group of cells wit
Soil is composed of water, air, organic matter and minerals
composed of mineral and organic solids, liquids, gases and living organisms
Needs to be capable of plant growth
Must be formed under "natural conditions" (natural forming factor
physiology and environment of soil organisms
conditions affecting the growth of soil organisms
for most numerous microorganisms
moisture near field capacity (wet but adequately aerated)
temp near 30c
near neutral pH
high nutrient content
semi-permeable membranes present b/w zones of HIGH and LOW osmotic potential
water moves in response to different osmotic potential until equilibrium is reached
ability to move from areas of low to high concentration -> osmotic potential
strength of attraction towards phyllosilicates
Coulomb's law: see slide
ions exchange reaction
all ions in DDL can be exchanged with other ions
mass ion effect: large quantity of i