Shifting Baselines and the Future
Conservation Science 101
Ecological Baselines, the Pace of
Change, and the Future of Conservation
Ecological Baselines Represent States of Nature that
Weve Become Accustomed to as Natural
Housekeeping - Midterm
Mid-term exam grades posted on Connect
Answer sheets will be posted on the course
website later today
Possible fates of a tree in a changing climate:
Extirpation (Extinction or die)
Highly diverged conifer species share many genetic signals of adaptation to local
Three grand challenges in conservation: Urbanization, Agriculture, Deforestation.
Effects of agriculture:
1. Large-Scale transformation (38% of planet used for agriculture)
Land Transformation due to Land Clearing, Forestry, Grazing, Agriculture,
Salmoninae: Salmon, Trout, Char.
North American Pacific Salmon Species (Oncorhynchus genus spp. - species)
PINK (SMALLEST BODY SIZE 2 YEARS OF MATURING, stay 1-3 months in
COHO (IN DANGER: HIGH CATCHMENT RA
Stellars Sea Cow -> California to Aleutian Islands
Only species of Pleistocene Mega-fauna to survive to modern times
NOT ALL DECLINES ARE BAD (if return to baseline)
1. Unlimited food introduced
2. Bird fertilizes grasses
3. Plants who
Anadromous migrating up rivers from the sea to spawn.
Adaptation a heritable trait that increases fitness of a species.
Assisted Gene Flow Planting seeds that are already genetically adapted to warmer
climates (from lower elevation) in the higher e
RIDEEEEEE THE CURVE AYY~
GOTTA HAVE PASSION IN LIFE
4 views of nature and conservation science
1. The Romantic-Transcendental Conservation Ethic
- Nature viewed in a religious sense that cleanses the human soul.
2. The Resource Conservation Ethic
ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT VS. BIOCAPACITY (DEMAND VS. SUPPLY)
How much biologically productive land & water humans use to
1. produce the resources we consume
2. process the waste we generate
3. examples: carbon footprint, built-up land, f
Challenges for Salmon Sustainability
Oct. 13, 2016
Dr. Scott Hinch
Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, UBC
Issues can be compounded:
Eg. habitat and fisheries
Topics for today
1) What are the large challenges and
issues for salmon sustainabili
Linear Momentum, Conservation and Impulse Momentum is intertia in motion and is conserved for all interactions
where external forces don't interfere Momentum and Impulse By momentum we mean inertia in motion Definition:
Momentum Momentum= mass x velocity
Ionosphere lower thermosphere Biotic "Living Environment"
Includes all organisms
Mineral A naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline solid with definite chemical composition and characteristic
physical properties. biome a large, relatively distinct terr
Rocky Mountains Range
9 Introduction to Conservation Science
CONS 101 What is conservation science?
The eld arose from two opposed views of
nature and our relationship to it
The RomanticTranscendental Conservation Ethic
From the writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry
o Some denitions
o Whats the big deal?
o Impacts of invasive species
o What makes a good invader?
o The 3 stages of invasion
o North American examples Some denitions
An alien nonFnative or introduced
Increased Tree Death Rates in
S. Daniels This research began in 1992
A. Stan L. Daniels Tree death rates have more than doubled in recent
decades in western old-growth forests,
a possible consequence of regional warming.
Invasive Species of Deer Lake
Emily Doan 34433136
Himalayan Blackberry (Rubus discolor)
The Himalayan blackberry, found abundantly around the edges of Deer Lake, is an invasive species of
Armenian and Iranian origin. It bears a large, berry-like fruit tha
Cons Quiz Questions
What is the biodiversity crisis, and what is its primary cause?
The biodiversity crisis is the rapid loss of species (at a rate equal to that of the extinction
of dinosaurs during the Cretaceous era). There are many factors
What is conservation science?
the field arose from two opposed views of nature and our relationship to it
Romantic-transcendental conservation ethic
Nature viewed in a quasi-religious sense-cleanse the human soul
Resource Conservation Ethic
intentional introductions-diverse taxa
for immigrants to "acclimatize"
Invasive species is one of the biggest threats to global biodiversity
increasing rate of introductions
5000 (up to 1985)
Global climate change
Climate change a brief overview
Some global indicators
Climate change mi<ga<on
poten<al for Carbon sequestra<on
Adap<ng to climate change
Arrhenius, S. 1896.
Whats the big deal?
Impacts of invasive species
What makes a good invader?
The 3 stages of invasion
North American examples
Whitebark pine: an ongoing conserva3on
o Whitebark pine: a keystone species
o Whitebark pine in BC distribu3on and
o Evidence for decline
o Causal agents
Mountain pine beetl