Antagonist: Any drug that inhibits the action of a specific
Acetylcholine: (ACh)The neurotransmitter responsible for
motor control at the junction between nerves and muscles;
also involved in mental processes such
Neurons: the basic units of the nervous system, are cells
that specialize in communication.
o Sensory neurons: detect information from the physical
world and pass that information along to the brain,
usually via the spinal cord.
Ch. 3 (continued)
Glutamate: The primary excitatory transmitter in the
Endorphins: A neurotransmitter involved in natural pain
reduction and reward.
Substance P: A neurotransmitter involved in pain
Consciousness: The subjective experience of the world and
of mental activity.
Split brain: A condition in which the corpus callosum is
surgically cut and the two hemispheres of the brain do not
receive information directl
Transduction: A process by which sensory receptors produce
neural impulses when they receive physical or chemical
Signal detection theory: A theory of perception based on
the idea that the detection of a faint stimulus requi
Client-centered therapy: An empathic approach to therapy,
it encourages personal growth through greater selfunderstanding.
Cognitive therapy: Treatment based on the idea that
distorted thoughts produce maladaptive behaviors and
Health psychology: The field of psychological science
concerned with events that affect physical wellbeing.
Well-being: A positive state that includes striving
for optimal health and life satisfaction.
Biopsychosocial model: a model o
Myelin sheath: A fatty material, made up of glial cells,
that insulates the axon and allows for the rapid movement
of electrical impulses along the axon.
Nodes of ranvier: small gaps of exposed axon, between the
segments of myelin sheath,
Thalamus: The gateway to the brain; it receives almost all
incoming sensory information before that information
reaches the cortex.
Hippocampus: A brain structure important for the formation
of certain pieces of memory.
Amygdala: A brain
Circadian rhythms: The regulation of biological cycles into
Dreams: The product of an altered state of consciousness in
which images and fantasies are confused with reality.
Manifest content: the plot of a dream, the way