Introduction: The
Analytical Process
Chapter 0
Chemical Analysis
Chemical analysis includes any aspect
of the chemical characterization of a
sample material.
Analytical Chemistry?
Science of Chemical Measurements
Chapter 0
Qualitative and Quantitative Ana
EIGENVALUES AND THERMODYNAMIC STABILITY
CHEMISTRY 213
When considering thermodynamic stability for an isolated system, we had to show that
E
(2)
2
1 2 E
1 2 E
E
2
S +
SV +
E 2 + .
SV N i
2 S 2 V ,N i
2 V 2 S,N i
(1)
was positive, where terms involvin
Carnot Engines, Efciency, and The Second Law
Chemistry 213
Fig. 1. The Carnot Cycle
The Carnot engine is a useful construction for relating the mathematical (S 0 for a
spontaneous process in an isolated system) and the physical statements of the Second La
THE CLAUSIUS INEQUALITY AND THE MATHEMATICAL
STATEMENT OF THE SECOND LAW
CHEMISTRY 213B
Here is a summary of the proof of the Clausius inequality given in class.
To
dWC
Carnot Engine
dW Total
dQS
System, T
dWS
where C is a reversible Carnot engine which
WHY THE EFFICIENCY OF A CARNOT ENGINE IS INDEPENDENT OF THE KIND OF WORKING MATERIAL
CHEMISTRY 213B
Here are two proofs that the efciency of a reversible Carnot engine depends only on the
temperatures of the heat baths.
1. Method I using Thompsons Princip
COLLISION THEORY OF THE RATE CONSTANT
CHEMISTRY 213
The simplest collisional model for the rate constants in bimolecular elementary reactions,
e.g.,
A + B Products,
is to assume that reaction occurs every time an A and B molecule collide. Thus the rate
be
PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
Chemistry CHEM 213W
As we have stressed in class, when dealing with a macroscopic sample of a material it is
practically impossible to measure or calculate all the microscopic properties of the 1023 atoms
or molecules in the sys
Problem Set 2: Chemistry CHEM 213W
DUE: Friday, January 26, 2001
1. How much work will be produced in the isothermal, reversible expansion from V 1 to V 2 of a
gas with the equation of state:
pV = RT +
(bRT a)
V
2. (Barrow, Problem 5-1) The acceleration d
THE MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN DISTRIBUTION
CHEMISTRY 213
The molecular description of the bulk properties of a gas depends upon our knowing the
mathematical form of the velocity distribution; That is, the probability, F(v x , v y , v z )v x v y v z ,
of nding a m
Boltzmann Distribution
-5-
Chemistry CHEM 213W
This is the speed distribution and is shown below. Notice that it vanishes when c=0; why?
1. Appendix: Proof of Eq. (4)
You will not be responsible for this proof. Differentiate both sides of Eq. (3) with
res