10000 years ago human beings lived in small, nomadic groups of 30 100 people
gathering and hunting food.
Today no human beings anywhere live the same (by foraging hunting + gathering).
This shift from people living together foraging to people
Finding Hope in the Face of Cultural Devastation
o When Columbus arrived in the New World there were 100s of thriving societies
that were devastated by European diseases and illnesses. These devastations
continued well into 19th C as the people who surviv
2.4 HAVE PROGRESS & DEVELOPMENT IMPROVED HEALTH?
Illness & Inequality
o Biomedical Model: aka Western medicine, scientific medicine, or modern
medicine that combines bio w/diagnosis & treatment of illness & that views the
body as a machine, independent of
Progress For Whom?
o Growth of British textile industry produced greath wealth for some people but
destroyed textile manufacturing in India, created a large demand of opium in
China (larger import), extended slavery in the US while decreasing Africas
Life Among Foragers: The Hadza and Ju/hoansi
o James Woodburn studied the Hazda people (a small group of nomadic
foragers) in Tanzania and described their territory as dry, rocky, savanna.
Foragers are often seen as living on the verge of starvation but
Industrial Agriculture: Producing Potato Calories
o John H. Bodley compared production of sweet potatoes in New Guinea to NY
o In N.G they used slash and burn technique and plots of land were cleared and
planted using digging sticks.
o In N.G 21% of diet
Transition to Agriculture
o There is a perspective on cultural change that sees shifting from foraging to
modern, industrial society less as a development/progress but as a necessary
o Emphasizes the influences of population growth and population de
The case of Brazil
o Brazil has been one the major recipients of the World Bank loans.
o Using the loans received they built dams, roads, factories & industries. Also
modernized agriculture becoming world leaders in the export of crops such as
The British In India
o In 17th C Mughal India was an empire created by the Turks and emperor was
Babur. India was a major trading country, which had links to Europe, China, and
Islamic countries. The British East India Company (BEIC) granted monopoly to
Does the Idea of Progress Help us understand the shift from foraging to
o one possible explanation for why societies transformed themselves in this way is
that human inventions resulted in better ways of doing things (aka human cult