1. Methods in behaviour Genetics
a. Selective Breeding
c. Analogous experiments with humans
2. Heritability of Personality Traits
3. Data an MZ vs DZ twins
4. Shared vs. Unshared Sources of Variation
5. Critical Analysis
Which statement about Pearson correlations is
A. Pearson correlations ranges from -1 to 1.
B. Pearson correlations shows the direction of the
relationship between two variables.
C. Pearson correlations do NOT show the strength
of the relationsh
Fundamentals II: Causality and Validity
Relevance of this Lecture
This lecture explains the relation between
correlations and causality.
This lecture explains the distinction between
personality measures and personality constructs
Lecture 02: Correlations and Reliability
Relevance of this Lecture:
This lecture gives you the statistical background
that you need to understand personality research.
1. Correlation Coefficient
2. Effect Size
3. Reliability/Measurement Error
Who am I?
Born in Germany
Ph.D. at the Free University Berlin, 1997
Post-doc at University of Illinois in
Ed Dieners Subjective Well-Being Lab.
Professor at UTM since 2000
General Instructions about the test.
1. The term tests use SCANTRONS.
2. You are responsible for bringing a B2 pencil and eraser so that you can make changes on your
3. The term test will be based on 25 multiple-choice questions.
4. Each questio
Chapter 7, Part 2/2
Who does that?
Look at many traits at once
Sets of traits differ
The California Q-set
Set of 100 phrases
Category 5: neither characteristic or
Category 1: unchar
Chapter 4, Part: 1/2
Trait: an attribute of personality which is relatively stable and long-living
Trait approach: Psychologists with this theoretical view of personality are interested in
individual differences in personality and behaviour, as well as
Chapter 7, Part: 1/2
Why measure traits?
Linking traits with behaviour
What do people like that do?
Conscientiousness (related set: integrity)
Most employers search for such trait
Chapter 6 notes (1 of 2)
Validity = accuracy
Consequence of everyday judgments of personality
Misinterpretation of another
Shy people are usually perceived as cold and distance
o This negative response reinforces their
Chapter 8, Part 1/2
Species resemble one-another both chemically and anatomically which sustain body and
Personalities tend to be inherited across species in a similar fashion
Species resemble one another through evolution
Biological evolution i
Chapter 6, Part: 2/2
Moderators of accuracy
o Affects correlation between 2 variables
o 4 potential
Properties of the judge
Good judge is one who can predict behavior in different
Intelligence and conscientiousness of judge are correlated
Chapter 8, Part 2/2
Research methods for studying brain
Personality traits are observed in chimpanzees, hyenas, dogs,
tortoises and squids
o Brain damage
Conclusions are only drawn if enough individuals are
- CPI masculinity feminism test has 0 face validity
o Get a point for every masculine items
o Subtract a point for every feminine item
Ranges from -27 to +27
o Quick and easy way to measure a huge number of data
For a long time res
Based on Hans beliefs to identify personality.
First we must identify the main dimensions of personality (behavior is best
described in terms of traits)
He gave us a typology saying there are types of personality where behavior is
Personality Measurement II
- Observing behavior
- Observing the consequences of
- Experience Sampling
- Daily Diary Data
Personality is Reflected in Environments
Accuracy Criteria: Average ratings from
occupants and peers (N = 83,