The Role of Perceptual Salience in the Fundamental Attribution Error:
Perceptual salience: information that is the focus of people's attention; people
tend to overestimate the casual role of perceptually salient information. This helps us
explain why the
Social cognition: thinking about social objects. How to perceive and process the social
Social objects: can be a person, in a basic level any object that are bounds with the laws
of physics however there are other forces such a processing the worl
Focusing on the Self: Self-Awareness Theory
When we are focused on ourselves, we have a tendency to erroneously assume that others
also share this awareness.
Self-awareness theory: the idea that when people focus their attention on themselves,
Thought Suppression and Ironic Processing
Thought suppression: the attempt to avoid thinking about something we would just as
o The automatic part of the system called the monitoring process searches for
evidence that the unwanted thought is
Social cognition: the way people think about themselves and the social world - how they
select, interpret, remember and use social information to make judgments and decisions.
o Automatic cognition: it is effortless, easy, involuntary, nonconscious, and
The Need to Feel Good about Ourselves
Social Comparison Revisited
Downward social comparison: the process whereby we compare ourselves with people
who are worse than we are on a particular trait or ability. It is a self-protective and selfenhancing strat
Implicit Personality Theories: Filling in the blanks
Implicit personality theory: a type of schema people use to group various kinds of
personality traits together; for example many people believe that if someone is kind, he or
she is generous as well.
Conformity and Social Approval: The Asch Line Judgment Studies
The study when Solomon Asch conducted with confederates and the actual participant
were shown two cards one with one single like and one card with 3 different lines in
different lengths and t
Fear and Attitude Change
Fear arousing communication: a persuasive message that attempts to change people's
attitudes by arousing their fears.
However, it depends on whether the fear influences people's ability and motivation to pay
attention to and pro
Behaviourally based attitudes:
o Behaviourally based attitudes: an attitude based primarily on observations of
how one behaves toward an attitude object.
Comparing affective, cognitive, and behavioural bases of attitude:
o When attitudes are negative tow