Chapter 8- Physical Development and Health in Early Childhood
Early childhood- children slim down and shoot up
Need less sleep and more likely to develop sleep problems
Improve in running, hopping, tying showelaces, putting cereal in bowl,
Chapter 4- Birth and the Newborn
How Childbirth Has Changed
Customs surrounding childbirth reflect beliefs, values and resource of a culture
Increased death of mother once upon a time
About 96% of births are attended by physi
Chapter 13: Psychosocial Development in Middle Childhood
1) The Developing Self
a) Self-Concept Development: Representational Systems
Around 7 or 8:
- Children reach the third stage of self-concept development.
- Judgments about the self become more cons
Chapter 3 Notes- Pregnancy and Prenatal Development
Stages of Prenatal Development
Principles of Growth
Gestation- prenatal period of development, b/w conception and birth (37-41 weeks)
Prenatal development takes place in 3 stages: germinal, embryonic and
Chapter 2 Notes- Conception, Heredity and Environment
Conception and Infertility
Process by which sperm and ovummale and female gametes or sex cellscombine to create a
single cell called a zygote which then duplicates itself again and again
Height and Weight
Growth slows during middle childhood but small changes add up
Children grow 2-3 inches, 2-4 kg each yr b/w 6-11
Girls retain more fatty tissue than boys
Recommended weights for avg 10 yr old is 31 kg for b
Chapter 5- Physical Development and Health, Birth to Age 3
Infancy is from birth to when child begins walking and stringing words together (takes b/w 12-18
Toddlerhood from 18-36 months (more verbal, independent)
Early Growth and Physical Developm
Chapter 12- Cogntiive Development in Middle Childhood
Piagetian Approach: The Concrete Operational Child
At 7, children enter stage of concrete operations and begin to use mental operations to solve
concrete (actual ) problems
Can think logically cuz can
Chapter 6- Cognitive Development, Birth to Age 3
Behaviourist Approach: Basic Mechanics of Learning
One of the 2 major approaches of learning theory, behvaiourims is interestd in how we learn
how behaviour changes in response to experience
2 important pro
Chapter 9- Cognitive Development in Early Childhood
Piagetian Appraoch- The Preoperational Child
Early childhood of cognitive development
Great expansion in use of symbolic thought, or RA, but not in logic
Advances of Preoperational Thought
The Symbolic F
What is DP- an account of the changes that occur in a child's lifetime
Social, physical, emotional, cognitive
Indenties what changes are happening and underlying processes- how we
Darwin- rst to show babies can be scientically examined
The power of familiarity
o People prefer faces found more attractive that most resembled their own
Assumptions about attractive people
o People assume that physical attractiveness is highly correlated with other
o A large effect on both
Need to Belong
Belonging is a basic human motivation
o Sociometer theory
o Human survival tactics
o Development on human children
Compared to those who are isolated from others, people with strong social networks are
happier, healthier, and have greater
Types of Relationships
Platonic interpersonal closeness
Strong bond of animosity, distrust, and goal interference
Interpersonal closeness for which there is a sexual, procreative goal
Self expansion theory:
Components of Emotion
o Period of 4 seconds is then considered a genuine emotion.
o Peripheral Nervous system:
Sympathetic: engagement and approach
Parasympathetic: related to the emotion of compassion. We gain
What is Emotion?
A brief physiological and psychological response to an event that is felt subjectively and
prepares a person for action.
o Moods are not emotions because they are briefly held and diffused, no trigger.
May not call for an action.
o All societies have expectations about how people who occupy the roles of women
and men should behave.
o Roles that people play and the expectations that come with those roles can have
powerful effect on feelings and behaviour.
Why does deindividuation lead to Impulsive acts?:
o The presence of others or the wearing of uniforms and disguises makes people
feel less accountable for their actions because it reduces the likelihood that any
individual will be singled out and blamed.
Decision Making in Juries
97% of juries ended with the decision favoured by majority on the initial vote
Predeliberation error: before the actual deliberation the jury has already made a
decision, and they mostly follow through with it.
Minority dissent: observing minority dissenters (someone who rejects the authority)
may not result in explicit behaviour change, but has a deeper impact on implicit attitudes.
o Study: there were two control groups and they were shown blue and green slide
The Person Next Door: The Propinquity Effect
Propinquity effect: the finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more
likely they are to become our friends.
Attraction and propinquity rely not only on actual physi