RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN ASSESSMENT:
inter-rater reliability: refers to the degree to which two independent observers or judges agree.
test-retest reliability: measures the extent to which people being observed twice or taking the
There is less than total agreement about how ab beh ought to be studied and what are the facts of
SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC METHODS
Science is the pursuit of systematized knowledge through observation
Comes from latin term to know refers to both
Psychophysiology: concerned with the bodily chances that accompany psychological events
such as heart rate, tension in the muscles, blood flow, brain waves.
The assessments discussed here are not enough to make diagnosis, j
Positron Emission Tomography (PET): A more expensive and invasive procedure, allows
measurement of brain function.
A substance used by the brain is labelled with a short-lived radioactive isotope and
injected into the bloodstream.
Visual images of the w
it is important to recognize that many forms of dysfunction have their developmental origins
in problematic family interactions.
Contemporary roles of the role of the family in psychopathology are based on a family
psychological tests: standardized procedures designed to measure a persons performance on a
particular task or to assess his or her personality or thoughts, feelings, and behaviour. If the
results of a diagnostic test are inconclusive
BEHAVIOURAL AND COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT:
traditional assessment concentrates on measuring underlying personality structures and traits,
such as obsessiveness.
behavioural and cognitively oriented clinicians often use a system that involves the assessment
Through exposure to the life histories of a great number of patients, clinicians gain experience in
understanding and interpreting them
Eventually they may notice similarities of circumstances and outcomes and formulation important
Applications to psychopathology
Whenever we compare ppl given one diagnosis with those given another or with ppl without a
psychological diagnosis the study is correlational
When the correlational method is used in research on psychopathology one of the
THERAPIES FOR SOMATOFORM DISORDERS:
Little controlled research exists on the efficacy of different treatments. Case reports and
clinical speculation are the main sources of information.
Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy have not
DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER:
Dissociative identity disorder: requires that a person have at least two separate ego states, or
alters different modes of being and feeling and acting that exist independently of ach other and
that come forth and are in co
Somatisation disorder: recurrent, multiple somatic complaints, with no apparent physical
cause, for which medical attention is sought. To meet diagnostic criteria, the person must have:
(1) four pain symptoms in different locations,
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDB): a person is preoccupied with an imagined or exaggerated
defect in appearance, frequently in the face eg; facial wrinkles, excess facial hair, or the shape
or size of the nose.
- Women tend also to focus on the skin, hips, b
The placebo effect
Placebo effect refers to an improvement in a physical or psychological condition that is
attributable to a patients expectations of help rather than to any specific active ingredient in a
The effects of pilgrimages to shrine
SINGLE SUBJECT EXPERIMENATL RESEARCH
single subject experiment design participants are studied one at a time and experience a
manipulated variable. The strategy appears to violate many principles of research design.
As with the case study there is no cont
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
Heraclitus you can never step into the same river twice. Everything is always
-Perception does not depend only on energy and events that change in the world.
Perception also depends on the qualities of the perceiver.