Consequences of Second-Hand Smoke
The smoke coming from the burning end of a cigarette contains higher concentrations of
ammonia, carbon monoxide, nicotine and tar than does the smoke actually inhaled by the
smoker second hand smoke or environmental toba
Tumours arising form glial cells
-2 main kinds
Astrocytomas, arising from the growth of astrocytes.
These grow quickly and are rarely malignant.
When Tumor grows in generally accessible areas, prognosis for surgical removal
is generally quite good.
Chapter 6 Sensation and Perception: Vision
Module 6.1: Organization of sensory systems:
Three main types of sensory cortex:
1) Primary Sensory Cortex: First part of the cortex that receives information relayed
from the senses through the thalamus
- Of the
Chapter 5: The Sensorimotor System:
Module 5.1: Sensorimotor system:
- The brain is used to moving.
- The brain is a multitasking system. It makes you perform a huge numbers of
E.G: Youre in a lecture and you listen, record notes and look at
Chapter 3 Techniques in Neuropsychology:
Investigating How the Brain Produces Behaviour in Humans
Module 3.1: Study of the Damaged Nervous System:
The Scientific Mind:
- Empirical Method( Emprical means Observation): The way scientists gather
Causes of Brain Damage:
A tumor is a mass of new and abnormal tissue that is not physiologically beneficial to
its surrounding structures
Also called Neoplasms: New tissue
Space-occupying lesions: they are foreign objects that cause d
Chapter 1 What Are The Origins of Brain and Behaviour?
1.1 Neuroscience in the Twenty-First Century
Cerebrum major structure of the forebrain that consists of two virtually identical hemispheres (left and
right) and is responsible for most conscious behav
Chapter 4 How Do Neurons Use Electrical Signals to Transmit Information?
4.1 Searching for Electrical Activity in the Nervous System
Electrical Stimulation passage of an electrical current from an uninsulated tip of an electrode through
Chapter 3 What Are The Functional Units of the Nervous System?
3.1 Cells of the Nervous System
Cell Body (Soma) core region of the cell containing the nucleus and other organelles for making
Dendrite branching extension of a neurons cell membrane
Chapter 2 How Does The Nervous System Function?
2.1 Overview of Brain Function and Structure
Neuroplasticity the nervous systems potential for physical or chemical change that enhances its
adaptability to environmental change and its ability to compensate
Chapter 5 How Do Neurons Use Electrochemical Signals to Communicate and
-When one dives underwater, their heart almost completely stops; this is called bradycardia; this
conserves the bodys oxygen as one cannot breathe underwater
Chapter 6 - How Do Drugs and Hormones Influence the Brain and Behaviour?
-Adderall (dextroamphetamine) and Ritalin (methylphenidate) are drugs used to treat ADHD that also
used as cognitive-enhancing drugs in high schools and universities
Most of this course is going to focus on the function of the cerebral cortex.
Sulci(plural) sulcus- valleys
Fissure- extremely large sulcus
Gryus or guyri (plural)- deep part
The right hemisphere controls and receives info from the left hand side of the
Everything goes from high density to low density
To increase cell receptor activation, administer mimmicers
To decrease cell receptor activiation, administer inhibitors
Th cell is said to have red every time sodium oods into the receptor channel.
Costs of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence
Alcohol abuse is the 4th leading cause of worldwide disability than the use of tobacco or
Problem drinkers use health services 4x more than do non abusers, and their medical
expenses are twice as high
Opiates are a group of addictive sedatives that relieve pain and induce sleep when taken in
In 1806 the alkaloid morphine was separated from raw opium (bitter tasting powder) was a
great pain reliever
Many soldiers used it before
Before a plant, mahuang, was used by the Chinese to treat asthma
But relying on the shrub for the drug was not efficient, and so efforts to develop a synthetic
substitute began Amphetamines resulted from these efforts
Benzedrine was the fi
Mood Alterations, Situations, and Role of cognition
Drinking occurs if the perceived benefits outweigh the costs
Drinking motives vary along 2 dimensions the valence of reinforcement (positive vs.
Negative) and locus (external re
The pathological use of substances falls into 2 categories
o Substance abuse
o Substance dependence presence of at least 3 of the following
The person develops tolerance, indicated by larger doses of the substance
being needed to produce the desired eff
Case mgt/assertive community treatment
After deinstitutionalization began in the 1960s
Out of this program a new mental health speciality the case manager was created
Canada adopted the strategy
Initially case managers were basically brokers of servic
Zakzanis; conclusion tha the specific role of deficits in the temporal lobes has been overstated and that
more diffuse dysfunction exists
MRI studies found a subtle 4% but significant bilateral hippocampal volume reduction in ppl with s
shock and psychosurgery
early 1930s practise of inducing coma with large dosages of insulin was introduced by Sakel who claimed
that up to three quarters of s he treated showed significant improvement. Coma and death though and
Second generation (atypical) antipyshcitcs- Clozaril which can produce therapeutic gains in ppl with s who do not respond well to traditional meds
Concluded that most ppl had a favourable view of clozapine reporting improvements in levels of
Cognitive behavioural therapy
S can benefit from cog techniques designed to address their delusions and hallucinations
That CBT plus enriched treatment as usual is as effective as treatment as usual alone and that CBT seems to
be particularly effective
it does not appear that the genetic predisposition to s is transmitted by a single gene; several multi or
polygenic models remains viable.
Hunt for s related genes has proven more difficult than expected for several reasons including
Petit mol epilepsy, mild compared to grandmol. Characterized by something
Minot like the twitching or rolling up of the eye that lasts 5-20 seconds. Person
loses awareness. Lots of people don't realized they have this. 50-75% of the time
it is a conditio
PSYB65 Midterm Notes (Chapters 1-7)
Chapter 1: What are the Origins of Brain and Behaviour?
Brain is a physical object, living tissue, body organ
Behaviour is action, momentarily observable but fleeting.
o They have evolved together: one is responsible fo