Focus most of their attention on understanding the cause of war so as to find a remedy for its existence.
Realism taught American leaders to focus on interests rather than ideology, to seek peace through strength
and to re
POLB80H3- September 8, 2014
International relations- interactions between sovereign states
How to read journal articles
o The research question: what is the author trying to answer?
o Thesis statement
Realism: The Godfather of IR Paradigms
Oldest theory in I
Theory = set of assumptions about how the world works so we can simplify things and see
patterns. Explain and predict events in IR
o Human nature is flawed and therefore our relat
o power differentials do not equal conflict
Canada and the US valuable partnership
o international system is anarchic
liberal ir theorists do not claim there is government
o states are the mos
Marxism: 21st century global class wars
Old school Marxism
o Marx was writing in response to the 19th c industrial revolution
o Factory worker conditions at this time were dire
o Your whole life story is determined by your class.
o Class structure shapes
Constructivism: Understanding a complex, interdependent world
International relations are socially constructed
o The state is a social construct
o The concept of sovereignty is a social construct
o The international system is a social construct
International Security- Conflict, crisis and War
What is international security?
Ethnic cleansing and genocide
New security threats
How does theory help?
International political economy wrap up
Free Markets lead to prosperity
Since the 1980s, the dominant policy ideas about economic growth were
o Liberalize trade (free trade leads to greater growth than protectionist policies
o Privatize industries (the pr
90% of Japanese have a negative perception of china and vice-versa
Japan insecure about future
One common element in both is a rise of nationalism
o See each other as an important security threat to one another
First sino-japanese w
What is a causal explanation?
o Is the answer to a why question which provides a theoretically coherent because
o Is the phenomenon that you are trying to explain
o Its the output of the causal explanation (e.g creation of
Dictatorships do things differently that dictatorships.
Democratic peace theories
Democracies ght with non democracies
Realists are uncomfortable with the fact that democracies have not gone to war
in 150 years.
Democracies haven't fought yet.
Theories are a kind of language, they must be practiced.
IR theories, personal, national, international security, dominance of peace.
What counts as an IR issue depends on what we feel needs protecting,
the nature of threats, who is respo
Dictatorships do things differently.
Democratic peace theories:
Democracies fight with non democracies
Realists are uncomfortable with the fact that democracies have not gone to war in
Democracies haven't fought yet.
Did not exist 25 years ago
Instead of talking about the same types of things as realists and liberalists, they
ask questions like what is appropriate. Not only do we have expectations about
identities but expectations abou
WW1 was the first industrialized total war.
It brought the demise of 4 European empires: Russian, German, AustroHungary, and the Ottoman. After 1945 European power was in eclipse.
The onset of WW2 in Europe marked the collapse of the wart
Foreign policies are most always examples of ideas. No state has a FP
entirely consistent with an International Relations theory.
Autalky- drive to make sure you produce all the things you need within your
own country otherwise you are vu
Marxism is a governing philosophy
Is the governing philosophy of china, Cuba and North Korea.
Marxism is less prominent but has not gone away
Marxism is s a philosophy of history
Marxism sees history as progressing towards an inevitable e
Chapter 4 & 5 Key points
The Cold War helped popularize constructivism as an ideology.
The collapse of the USSR increased the USA's power in the international system,
was coined a hyper-power in 2000.
After cold war, US was described as a hyper-pow
Cold war history (1945-1989) and post cold war world.
No direct superpower conflict
Deterrence (if you attack me, I will have a massive retaliation against you)
Mutually assured destruction, both power enough for a second strike
Did not w
The US and USSR supported all kinds of oppressive reveries via proxy wars to
maintain power balance.
Left us with ethnic conflict and terrorism. They armed everybody which leaves us
with a heavily armed world Set up a new security council
IMF puts pressure on countries to reduce the size of their national debt
Globalization is also enabling relationships among non state actors
Attempts to control international crime and warfare is very difficult
The IMF and WTO