The competition coefficient of one species towards itself is, by definition,
Correct Answer: c
Your Answer: c
Answer C Feedback:
Textbook Reference: Concept 12.3 Competing species are more likely to coexist when they us
Similar features and structures are in similar relative positions because they likely arise from the
same embryonic precursors even though they have different functions in different organisms.
If you were to design a structure that was per
Species were created at the same time in special creation
We need evidence if we are to believe in descent with modification. We need evidence for these
All dogs have a single common ancestor which gave rise to a variety
SLIDE 8, 9, 10, 11
Mating systems refers to how many mates do the individual have in their life time. In
monogenous systems, there is usually one mate. In polygenous systems, animals have more
than 1 mate in their lifetime. Polyandrous means more than one
A lot of observational studies look across large distances or large time durations. Example how
does body size change in altitude in birds. You arent changing anything in this kind of study you
just look at the correlation of two factors.
These cichlid fish have lots of different adaptations. One type of fish in this pond is the scaleeating fish that eats the scale of other fish.
They swim up to the side of the fish and take a bite out of the fish
The right handed fish atta
The reason we measure allele frequencies and not genotype frequencies is because the gene
pool doesnt change even though allele pairs may change over generations under the H-W
This is why we cant measure genotype frequencies and nee
If you give even the wild type enough time which has low mutation rate, it will eventually develop
a beneficial mutation that will benefit the whole population.
The mutator has an advantage because it can mutate so much that it will generate a ben
There is diversity in life but there is also similarity within diversity
Example similar body structures and adaptations.
Animals fit within their environment; a good fit is called adaptation. Example a
kangaroo rat doesnt even drink water
Evolution Lecture Two
Life on earth is very diverse however within this diversity we have a lot of similarities (E.g.
animals with the same basic body plans, same adaptations, etc.)
Animals fit to their environments which we know as adaptations (E
Concept 9.1 Populations are dynamic entities that vary in size over time
Populations are groups of individuals of a species that live in the same
area and interact with one another.
The number of individuals in a population changes over time an
When were talking about pattern of evolution, were talking about origin of species etc.
Pattern questions are common. We use history and sequence of change to answer pattern
questions. Example looking at fossil records
Pattern questions take place
Aside from mutation and selection what other mechanisms can produce evolutionary change in
Migration, genetic drift
Evolutionary change is change in frequencies in alleles over time in populations.
We have an initial populatio
When total phenotypic variability is lower, heritability accounts for most of the variation. When
total phenotypic variability is high, Ve accounts for a lot of it and heritability is lower.
The actual amount of heritability doesnt chan
On 1 field we spray the whole thing with pesticide. On the other field, we leave a reserve patch
thats not sprayed.
Over time in the first field, the only beetles that survive are the ones with resistance which they
pass to their offspr
Under low selection, the bird can eat low fitness individuals but not all of them. Green snakes
are naturally selected but red population still exists.
So under weak selection susceptible virions still replicate
HIV causes AIDS. When people die of AIDS, they die of something else because they have
AIDS. People actually die from OIs (opportunistic infections).
HIV virion is a retrovirus thus it has an RNA genome only
It has 3 enzymes: Re
In population genetics we talk about allele frequencies changing over time with selection. In this
we compare 2 traits at one locus and are they fixed, lost, or maintained.
In quantitative traits, we ask how does mean and variation in t
The actions of interacting species impose selection pressure on each other.
An example of coevolution is the leaf cutter ants. They live in the tropics and cut leaves and
transport it to their nest.
In their nest they have huge
Unlike in humans, females in other animals can hold ejaculates in their reproductive tract from
several different males. These ejaculates compete for each other for access to the females egg.
Example female insects have sperm storage or
The differences he noticed went beyond just morphological differences of sexual structures.
Male frigates puff their chest out and they have a big red patch which is part of their courtship
Male toads have a pou
If drosophila speciated by colonizing new islands each time they were formed, the phylogenetic
tree should match with the island formation
It didnt because the species on Molokai and Maui are descendants of 1 common ancestor.
H-W assumes theres random mating.
Non-random mating is different from sexual selection. Under sexual selection, some individuals
We have a population of different genotypes. If we have assortative mating, individuals wil
Chapter 1: case for evolutionary thinking: understanding HIV
1.1 the natural history of HIV epidemic
AIDS was recognized in 1981 in US as forms of
pneumonia/cnacer. How does HIV spread, and how can it
HIV infection start when body fl