PHLA10 Midterm notes
Subjective Realm: It is the basis inside of a persons mind ruled by memories,
thoughts, biases, prejudges that the person came up with. It is based on how an
individual perceives reality, rather than reality itself. Therefore, this ob
Chapter 11: The Argument from Evil
First version of the Argument
1. I f God were to exist, then that being would be all-powerful, all-knowing, and
all-good. (all-PKG, for short)
2. If an all-PKG being existed, then there would be no evil
3. There is evil
Chapter 13: Descartes Foundationalism
There are the foundational beliefs, which are perfectly solid. [Axioms]
There are the superstructure which count as knowledge because they rest securely
on that solid foundation. [Theorems]
To show tha
Chapter 10: Pascal and Irrationality
Prudential reasoning is a kind of reasoning that doesnt require an evidence but due
to the circumstance you are being, it is prudent to try to believe a proposition.
Evidential reasoning is a kind of reasoning that req
Chapter 14: The Reliability Theory of Knowledge
Descartes: Knowledge Is Internally Certifiable
(1) I now believe that the object in front of me is a page
(2) My present belief is clear and distinct
(3) Clear and distinct ideas are true
There is a page in
Chapter 15: Justified Belief and Humes Problem of Induction
Knowledge versus Justified Belief
S is having knowledge if S knows that p, then p must be true.
S is having a justified belief if p doesnt require to be true.
Knowledge requires impossibility of
Chapter 12: What Is Knowledge?
Epistemology is the part of philosophy that tries to understand concept.
Epistemologists try to evaluate the common-sense idea that we have knowledge and
that we are often rationally justified in the beliefs we have.
Chapter 16: Can Humes Skepticism Be Refuted?
What Exactly, Does the Principle of the Uniformity of Nature Say?
PUN says that the future will resemble the past. PUN is supposed to be an
assumption that is required by each and every inductive argument.
Chapter 20: Logical Behaviorism
Logical behaveiorism tries to describe what we mean when we talk of an individuals
thoughts, beliefs, intentions, dreams, and sensations.
The Attack on the Ghost in the Machine
Ryle is deeply confused th
Chapter 22: The Mind/Brain Identity Theory
The Identity Theory Is an A Posteriori
The identity theory argues for its solution to the mind/body problem by describing
the progress that science has made so far and by predicting the progress that science
Chapter 19: Dualism and the Mind Body Problem
What is the Mind/Body Problem?
What is the relationship between the mental and the physical?
Are your mind and your brain one and the same thing?
Are your beli
Chapter 21: Methodological Behaviorism
Methodological behaviorism is a recommendation for how the science of psychology
ought to be pursued.
It accepts the idea that our commonsense mentalistic vocabulary refers to inner
Therefore it argues that
Chapter 17: Beyond Foundationalism
Humes Problem and Descartes Problem
Hume was right that induction cant be rationally justified, if we understand the idea
of rational justification in the way Hume did.
How does my present mental state justify
Functionalisms Negative Thesis: Whats Wrong with the Identity Theory?
Unique physical objects are called tokens
Kinds are called types.
The unique physical object that can be a token of many types
e.g. the shirt you are wearing is a token
Chapter 24: Freedom, Determinism, and Causality
The problem of freedom
The Distant causation argument focuses on the idea that our behaviors are caused
by factor that were beyond our control.
You didnt freely choose the genes you have or the sequence of
Chapter 9: Is the Existence of God Testable?
They hold that the sentence "God exists" is meaningless. It isn't true and it isnt false
"God exists" and "Genes exist"
The latter expresses a scientific statement that can be justifi
Chapter 8: The Ontological Argument
1. God is by definition the greatest being possible
2. A being who fails to exist in the actual world while existing in other possible
worlds is less perfect than a being who exists in all possible worlds
Chapter 6: Evolution and Creationism
(G) represents god,
(E) represents mindless evolutionary processes
(O) is the complex adaptations that organisms are observed to have
Theistic evolutionism GEO
Atheistic evolutionism GEO
Lecture Week 1
Metaphysics deals with issues in ontology and being
Why is there anything at all?
What is consciousness?
some metaphysics issues have gone science hand off
Metaphysics - is the part of philosophy that attempts to
Everything is constituted by something (everything is made of something)
Ex. A statue made of clay you are holding two objects and not just one
o When you destroy one and there is something that remains you must have been holdin
Causality vs. Free Will
There is are two people charged for bank robbery. One man is diagnosis with a disorder known as
Kleptomania and the other is an ordinary thief with an abusive child hood. Should both be charged?
Yesterdays accident cannot be excuse
Freedom vs determinism (Aye: reading)
Freewill is the ability to act otherwise to your decision entailing a sense of moral responsibility. For a
man is not thought to be morally responsible for an action that it was not in his power to avoid
Universals (Lecture 17/02/28)
what kind of things exist
general idea: different things have things in common
o three red apples: all red, all fruits, all delicious; these are properties some properties
are unique to one thing
o there are properties that
Philosophy: Freedom and Determinism
We want to say we have free will
Determinism every event has a cause (is causal)
Deny determinism and accept indeterminism not every event has a cause which technically
means its random and thus doesnt seem you
The Self and the Future
Bernard Williams (19292003) was among the most distinguished moral philosophers of the
20th century. Born in Engiand, he divided his academic career between the University of
Cambridge in England and the University
Existence. What is it? It is ultimately defined by the independence of being without another's presence I am, therefore I am. It exists in nature and their existence need not to be debated, for it is, therefore it
is. Where are univers
Since ancient times humans have believed in the concept of a soul, the immaterial and transcendent
part of a human life that goes on after the body.
You dont have a soul. You are a soul, you have a body, C.S. Lewis
In ancient Egypt, laws were
Why not Nothing? Reading: Gaunilo - In Behalf of the Fool
1. Response to whoever doubts or denies the existence of a necessary God
- If one has it in their understanding, it must exist in reality
- Proof 1: In order for there to be a necessary God he must
Writing a Philosophy Paper
(see also www.jimpryor.net/teaching/guidelines/writing.html)
Key Things to Keep in Mind
Every philosophy paper makes an argument: an attempt to convince someone of some
conclusion by providing reasons.
Everything you write in a
Chapter 7: Can Science Explain Everything?
A naturalistic explanation seeks to explain features of the world by describing the
processes in nature that produced them.
A supernaturalistic explanations attempts to explain features of the world by