Statistics Chapter 1 Notes
Stats Starts Here
Part 1 What is Statistics?

Statistics is a way of reasoning, along with a collection of tools and methods designed to help
us understand the world.
Statistics (plural), are particular calculations made from d
Chapter 11: Experiments and Observational
Studies p 318
Observation vs Experiment
An observational study observes individuals
and measures variables of interest but does
not attempt to influence the response.
An experiment imposes a treatment on
individua
Chapter 6 : Scatterplots,
association and correlation p166
Previously, single variables on
their own.
Or one or more categorical
variables.
Now look at two quantitative
variables.
First tool: scatterplot.
Plot values of two quantitative
variables aga
Chapter 12: From randomness to probability
350
Terminology
Sample space p351
The sample space of a random phenomenon
is the set of all possible outcomes.
Example
Toss a coin.
Sample space: S = cfw_H, T
Example: Rolling a die.
S = cfw_1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6
1
Eve
Chapter 15: Sampling Distribution Models
P 433
Normal approximation for counts and
proportions
Draw a SRS of size n from a large
population having population p of
success. Let X be the count of success in
the sample and p = X / n the sample
proportion of
Chapter 5: The standard deviation as a ruler
and the normal model p131
Which is the better exam score?
67 on an exam with mean 50 and SD 10
62 on an exam with mean 40 and SD 12?
Is it fair to say:
67 is better because 67 > 62?
62 is better because it
Chapter 14: random variables p394
A random variable (r. v.) is a variable
whose value is a numerical outcome of a
random phenomenon.
Consider the experiment of tossing a coin.
Define a random variable as follows
X = 1 if a H comes up
= 0 if a T comes up.
Chapter 8: Regression Wisdom p237
Patterns on residual plots p237
Example: Population (in millions) in a country
for 20002005 (recorded as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5):
year population
0
5.6
1
5.8
2
6.2
3
6.9
4
7.9
5
9.0
1
Scatterplot of population vs year
9.0
8.5
Skip Chap 9
Chapter 10: Sample surveys p290
See this kind of thing all the time:
a survey asking if there were a
provincial election tomorrow, which
party would you vote for?
How is that done, and why?
What would happen if we tried to survey
everybody?
1
Chapter 18: More about Tests, p522
null hypothesis has to give a parameter
value like H 0 : p= 0.7 .
alternative has to say what you are trying
to prove like H A : p 0.7 .
Kind of alternative you use depends on
exactly what you want to prove:
is p dif
Chapter 3: Displaying and summarizing
quantitative data p52
The pattern of variation of a variable is called
its distribution.
1
Histograms p53
The breakfast cereal data
Study collected data on nutritional content per serving
(and other things) of 77 diff
Chapter 1: Stats Starts Here
What is statistics? A way of reasoning, along
with a collection of tools and methods designed
to help us understand the world. P2
Statistics is about variation p3
Things vary
people are different
can't see everything or meas
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO SCARBOROUGH
Department of Computer and Mathematical Sciences
STAB22H3 STATISTICS I Fall 2016
Course Description: Statistics is the science of collecting, organizing and interpreting data. In science, society and everyday life, people
STAB22: Statistics I
Instructor: Caren Hasler
Department of Computer and Mathematical Sciences
University of Toronto Scarborough
Week 1
0 / 28
Outline
I Stats Starts Here
II Displaying and Describing Categorical Data
One Categorical Variable
Two Categoric
Chapter 6 Scatter Plots, Association, and Correlation


Scatterplots are the best way to start observing the relationship between two QUANTITATIVE
variables
Scatterpolots are an ideal way to picture associations between two quantitative variables
When