CHAPT ER 15 Modern Physics
If the protons in the patients body were all experiencing exactly the same magnetic
field, they would all interact with the same radio wave photonsbut the protons dont all
experience the same field. The MRI machine introduce
CHAPTER 2 The Laws of Motion
strikes the stationary coin squarely. What happens? Try this
experiment again, but now use two coins with different
masses. How is the collision different? Does it matter which
coin you crash into the other?
Now line up sev
A lead-acid automobile battery provides 12 V between its negative terminal and its positive terminal.
It actually contains six individual batteries, connected in a chain. How much voltage does each individual battery provide?
Each individual batte
If the seesaw is rotating, then its angular position is changing; this brings us to our first
important vector quantity of rotational motionangular velocity. Angular velocity measures the rate at which the seesaws angular position is changing with
The fuel-air mixture is introduced into each cylinder during its induction stroke. In this
stroke, the engine pulls the piston away from the cylinders closed end so that its cavity
expands to create a partial vacuum. At the same time, the cyli
Unfortunately, these tiny capacitors cant hold separated charge forever because it
leaks out to their surroundings. Memory that uses charged capacitors to store bits is called
dynamic memory and must be refreshed (read and restored) hundreds
Check Your Understanding #2: Medical Electrons
A medical linear accelerator uses a strong electric field to accelerate electrons forward and give them
enormous kinetic energies. These high-energy electrons enter the patient and kill ca
CHAPT ER 12 Electromagnetic Waves
Fig. 12.1.3 Electromagnetic waves traveling toward
the right at the speed
of light. The red arrows
represent electric fields at
points on the yellow path;
the green arrows represent
magnetic fields at those
Carousels and Roller Coasters
Check Your Figures #1: Going for a Spin
Some children are riding on a playground carousel with a radius of 1.5 m (4.9 ft). The carousel turns
once every 2 s. How quickly are the children accelerating?
Answer: They are acce
Check Your Figures #2: Popped Out of the Refrigerator
When you take an air-filled plastic container out of the refrigerator, it warms from 2 C to 25 C. How
much does the pressure of the air inside it change?
Answer: It increases by
that lens has a focal length of 100 mm. The focal lengths of camera lenses
range from less than 10 mm (0.4 in) in many cell phones and compact cameras
to about 2 m (7 ft) in cameras used for nature photography.
When light from a scene passes t
Although optical viewfinders vary in style and sophistication, the best combine real and
virtual images. In a real-image optical viewfinder, a system of lenses, mirrors, and/or
prisms produces an erect real image of the scene and you then examine
Courtesy Lou Bloomfield
Fig. 8.1.2 According to the law of conservation of energy, you
can increase the internal energy (that is, thermal energy) of an
object either by adding heat to it or by doing work on it. Here the
and negatively charged particles. Each of the socks atoms consists of a dense central core
or nucleus, containing positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons, surrounded by
a diffuse cloud of negatively charged electrons. The
Rockets and Space Travel
the rocket doesnt need anything external to push and will operate perfectly well in empty
space (see 2 ). When it pushes hard enough on its exhaust, the rocket not only can support
its own weight, it can even accelerate upward.
operating, impacts by electrons may keep the filaments hot enough to sustain
the plasma and allow the heating current to be switched off. However, some
fluorescent fixtures can be dimmed, in which
Rockets and Space Travel
Fig. 4.2.8 The square of the spacecrafts
orbital period is proportional to the cube of its
mean distance from the sun (the average of its
maximal and minimal distances from the sun).
guidance, and encouragement of Christine Kushner, Geraldine Osnato, and Petra Recter.
To my numerous other friends and collaborators at John Wiley, many thanks.
I continue to enjoy tremendous assistance from colleagues here and elsewhere who
CHAPT ER 13 Light
Fig. 13.3.15 This tiny semiconductor chip
is a diode laser that emits an intense beam of
coherent light when a current flows through it.
Most laser diodes act as laser oscillators (Fig. 13.3.15), amplifying thei
LEDs and Lasers
Once electrons appear in the normally empty conduction band and empty levels appear
in the normally full valence band, electrons can respond to electric fields. They can shift from
filled levels to nearby empty levels and thus travel throu
Courtesy Lou Bloomfield
Fig. 13.1.14 (a) The horizontal surface of water reflects light strongly at shallow angles, making it
difficult to see the coins on the bottom of this dish. (b) When you look through a filter that blocks
voltage difference between the plates. The bigger and closer the plates, the less energy it
takes to store separated charge on them.
Changes that allow the capacitor to store separated charge more easily increase its
capacitance, the amoun
CHAPT ER 10 Electricity
Most significantly, however, the positive charge layer gives the negative charge layer
somewhere to go when the photoconductor is exposed to light! Wherever light from the
original document turns a patch of the photoconductor i
CHAPT ER 9 Resonance and Mechanical Waves
hall. Fortunately, because the speed of sound doesnt depend on frequency, when the entire
orchestra plays in unison you hear all its different pitches simultaneously.
This discussion of sound assumes that the
Electric Power Distribution
The wires wasted power is proportional to the square of the current passing through it!
This relationship became all too clear to Edison when he tried to expand his power distribution systems. The more current he tried to deliv
main spring unwinds as the toothed wheel turns, the clock occasionally needs winding.
(For two interesting examples of balance clocks, see 2 and 3 .)
Check Your Understanding #5: A Little Light Entertainment
When you accidentally strike a chandelie
CHAPT ER 8 Thermodynamics
Check Your Figures #1: Powerful You
You have been pedaling the exercise bicycle steadily for 20 min at a power of 200 W. How much
thermal power is the bicycle emitting into the room?
Answer: 200 W.
Why: Since the bicycles int