walked in 10:25AM
Darwinism: natural selection = success of a species to get food and procreate
weaker organism species die in struggle
removes morality and intentionality of human origin with physical
survival, sex, randomness
not a theory of all but a m
The main idea of socialism is to answer the social questions:
What should be the political answer to economic problems?
How should social changes be solved and dealt with?
Trade unions and Guilds
guilds were the enemies of free market, which is
Questions to consider:
Is Russia following the tradition of a strong totalitarian leadership?
Is this the outcome of Marxism or a betrayal of it?
Is this a modern phenomenon of totalitarianism?
Total state control: after Lenins free market reforms, the po
Totalitarianismis more centralized and real total control over public and private
spheres, a progression from original aims of absolutism.
fascist: not just dictator, but one with specific political ideologies
National Socialists (Nazis): eliminate racial
The class system was most prevalent in Britain, but was also present in continental
Europe. Class is never determined by income, but rather by the type of work done.
urbanization revealed different levels of poverty, causing the social questionto
In Germany, Hitler is seen as the only hope in an age of declining democracies.
Reasons for democratic collapse in Germany:
1. fear of threat from left - Communism
1. Soviet union work to spread Russian communism
2. aggrieved Nationalism: divide between n
1. Assassination of Franz Ferdinand - modernizer of Austria-Hungary - by Gavrilo
1. Princip in the Black Hand
2. serves as excuse for starting war based on long-term rivalries
1. Nationalist tensions
1. if you are
1) Hitlers role
- dictatorial mastermind
- weak, need other for
2) state structure
- obedience to dictator
- competition between
3) policy implementation
- Hitlers will and
19th century parties of the middle class
philosophy: human beings are good and if given the opportunity, they can and
will control themselves"
continuation of Locke and Enlightenment ideas based on reason
political goals - written constitution:
The Cold War was either a competition of ideologies or it was simple domination:
United States and allies
Russia and satellite states
Review - USSR in WWII
1. 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact
2. 1941 Nazis invade USSR
1. 23 million die from the war
Bismarck had a highly influential hand in 1848
Germanys 1848 Context (post-failed revolution)
1. great increase of liberal nationalism
goals: written constitution, voting rights
divide of nationalism between North and South
Northern Germany more industria
I. 1968 Protesting Cold War Conditions
1. Cracks in the Cold War Order
1. Germany: Will Brandt wants to introduce Ostpolitik
1. stop isolationist policies of NATO and Marshall Plan by trading
with the East
2. France: Charles de Gaulle
1. withdraws from NA
PART 1 - Europe at the end of the war from 70s to now
in the 60s, consensus within Europe broke down, leading to a workers revolt
against wages unaligned with inflation
higher wages were promised in exchange for a centralized worker
crisis of th
CAUSE OF 1848 REVOLUTIONS
Nationalism: cultural commonality in language and traditions
brings up issue of what to do when a pocket of language is within the larger mass
of another language
a 19th century idea of a political nation: shared sentiments=right
Welfare state sometimes called Europes third way as neither capitalism nor
Europes Third Way
1. ideologically, new ideas of social citizenship
2. people have a set of rights guaranteed to expected from the state in
a mood or sense that was not a unified school of thought nor was it a shared
removing blindness for light of Universal reason
natural law was studied to understand humans
understood as a universal standard
Absolutism: 17th century political vision of absolute powerof the monarch
without its lords
political power and control; reality of negotiation between Louis XIV
Louis XIV enacted this through orthodoxy, military, and political power
Impact of Enlightenment - "Enlightened despots" or "Enlightened absolutism"
forms militaristic, bureaucratic police states
helps consolidation of power in peace times as subjects are now policed
How enlightened were the Enlightened despots
The scientific revolution:
elite class phenomenon
change in perspective from emotional in past to logical now shapes modern-day
science and perspective
method: observation, experiment, analysis
used to conclude solutions to modern-day issues
In this day,
Whyd the revolution intensify? Where does the revolution end?
Intro - Radicalization of the Revolution
war and politicization of the masses (via newspapers and political clubs like the
Jacobin clubs) radicalizes revolution
sans culottes, the ordinary peop
The term ancient regime refers to the long-term socioeconomic changes in the 18th
a pattern of the changes occurring in the Middle Ages
pre-revolutionary way of doing things
What was society like in the ancien regime?
people: politically conserva
Napoleon Bonaparte 1799-1815
Napoleon becoming consul ends the 3rd estate revolution
he is supported by the people to come to support
forms Code Napoleon or the 1804 Civil Court
uniform and rational
conservative women reforms, i.e. women u
Question to consider:
What was the economic, political, intellectual, and material impact of the encounter?
Were there areas in which the impact was less than might have been expected?
initially, African West coast was used to set up wa
The history of women during & before the Enlightenment is a retrospective view.
Moreover, few efforts made to document the lives of women of that time period.
between 17th and 18th century, womens status decreases
increase in women jobs in factor
When does it start? Bastille Day (Jul. 14, 1789)? When does it end? Is Napoleon
considered a part of or post revolution?
Long Term Causes
Weak monarchy of Louis XV and brother XVI
XVI uninterested in being king; had throne thrust upon him