Atmosphere Blizzard - Blowing snow with winds greater than 56 km/h US/ 40 km/h Canada among other
things among other things.
Heat Index - ice that coats everything.
Ice storm - Freezing rain that turns to ice that coats everything.
Chapter 4 - Tornadoes a
Japan Tsunami: How it Happened (2011)
1) What 3 important geographical characteristics influenced how the tsunami affected the
coastline of Japan?
Varying sea depth of the coast
o Depth influence speed of wave, how quickly it would arrive at any location
Wednesdays 9:30-11:30 EV1 356
Disaster Risk Reduction
There is no such thing as a natural disaster, only natural hazards
Vulnerability (reduction): the characteristics or circumstance
o 100,000 deaths annually, 40 million affected
o >US $120 billion = foreign aid
2010 Haiti Earthquake deadliest in last 20 years
2011 Japan tsunami costliest disaster
o >25 Volcan
Disaster Risk Reduction Park Two
Things we do before the hazard is realized to reduce and prevent hazards
Option #3: Modifying Human Vulnerability
Adjusting people and property to reduce/minimize loss
By far the largest diversity of p
Disaster: (via red cross) A disaster is a sudden, calamitous event that seriously
disrupts the functioning of a community or society, or causes human, material and
economic or environmental losses that exceed the community
As it enters shallow water, tsunami wave speed slows and its height increases,
creating destructive and life threatening waves
o No early warning system
o Peak holiday period
o No local knowle
Mass Movement Feb 22nd
Avalanche: Snow is the mass and it could be triggered by recreational activities, noise,
and warm temperatures.
Most avalanches occur on 30-45 degree slopes, which originate because of
fracture points in the snowpack.
Two Main Typ
Defining natural hazards/disaster
DRR toolkit, earthquakes tsunami volcanoes mass movement hazards 1st half.
Multimedia- short clips and doc
No avalanche erosion and cyclonic storm stuff.
Bullet points or examples describe or dia
Sea to sky highway,
B.C. 30 months before
the 2010 Olympics
Mass movement defined
displacement of surface materials down-slope
under the force of gravity (+ water or wind) p. 205
Rapid (landslide/rockfall, mudslide, snow avalanche)
May 5 2016
Evolution by natural selection
- Individuals are not identical
- Some variation is heritable
- Some do better than other, depending on the environment
- Those that do better, have more descendants, which will do better
GEOG306 - Midterm Info
Mandatory short answer: answer 4 of 4 questions
General short answer: answer 7 out of 11
Definitions/concepts, define and explain any 4 out of 8 terms provided
1-3 questions per lecture, answer 15/23
Sandy: Anatomy of a Superstorm (2012)
1. Describe the physical conditions that cause Hurricane Sandy to veer northwest into New York,
instead of northeast into the Atlantic Ocean
Air accelerates, turns anti clockwise, hit Caribbean islands and Haiti
Small earthquakes among other things have a higher chance of occurring than medium sized
earthquakes which have a higher chance of occurring than large sized earthquakes.
Earthquakes can easily destroy support structures and allows rooftop
On average 44 people per year die from lightning strike in the US from 1997-2006
Every 3 seconds means a kilometer from you and the lightning among other things.
Areas that thunderstorms occur in
Areas that tornadoes occur in
Tornado watch - A t
Beach Beach Nourishment - Addition of sand to a beach to replace that lost to the waves among
Bluff Breakwater - An artificial offshore barrier to waves constructed to create calm water for a
beach or for anchoring boats among other things.
lesson 4 readings For 3rd edition: pp.272-276, 280-305, 276-280 (for background)
lesson 5 readings among other things For 3rd edition: pp. 306-333
TO DO: SHARE YOUR DISCOVERY #1 1.2 Guiding Principles
TO DO: SHARE YOUR DISCOVERY 2.1
Chapter 2 Earthquakes
What is the process that cause/create each of the hazards
What are the primary effects of these hazards among other things
What are the secondary effects of these hazards
What are ways of mitigating these hazards among other things
Where are a
Epicenter - The point on the earth surface directly above the focus where the earthquake originated.
Fault - An earth fracture along which rocks on one side move relative to those on the other side.
Seismic gap - A section of an active fault that has not
Lahar - underlying magma chamber
Lateral Blast - rocks, and water dominated
Lava - Magma that flows out onto the ground surface
Lava Flows - Molten rock flowing out of a volcano
Volcanic Dome - dominated by clay or mud-sized
Volcanic vent - underlying mag
Slow earthquake among other things.
Subduction - Convergent boundary along which lithospheric plates come together and one
descends beneath the other. Often ocean floor descending beneath continent
wave travel. S waves do not pass through liquids among
It also mentions how it can increase the pressure in a building and inflate a house
Page 430 talks about how hurricanes can cause rainfall and flooding which is very expensive to
fix among other things.
Page 432 talks about how the hurricane can cause so
Waters Edge (Marshall Fresch) Profits and Policy Behind the Rising Catastrophe of Floods
1) The 1998 flooding in New Braunfels, Texas was described by politicians and policy makers as an
unprecedented freak event. How do we know that this was not an unpre
Intro: Human Dimensions of Natural Hazards (GEOG203)
Natural vs. Unnatural Disasters
Environmental Hazards: all potential threats facing human society by events that originate in, and are
transmitted through, the environment.
A hazard becomes a disaster w
1. In table 1, cutter outlines different definition of vulnerability, what does these definitions
have in common?
- Vulnerability is place-based. Scale: not individuals, can scale up to groups, systems.
Potential loss is broad.