Number of reacting species
Melting temperatures of pure substances
Different phase regions (& number of phases)
Identify
Eutectic composition and temperature
Sketch cooling curve from a1-a5
"easily metled"
direct from liquid to solid two-phase region
lame

pictorial way of understanding properties of a system
Total composition zA, liquid phase has composition
xA, and gas phase has composition yA
Phase diagrams
important in the development of a wide variety of
materials
all based on the Phase Rule, developed

molar Gibbs energies, Gm
chemical potentials,
Clapeyron equation
lowest indicates most
thermodynamically stable phase
form of pure matter that is uniform in terms of
composition and physical state
phase
phase transition
Phase at given p, T
V term is cons

exothermic, q < 0
Chemical reactions
endothermic, q > 0
also described in terms of H
rxnHo
pure substance
Kirchoff's Law
Standard Enthalpy Changes
standard states
1 bar
298 K
stable form of element
fHo
1 bar
reference states
melting/freezing
Standard Form

define state of substance
independent of preparation
Perfect gas, T = 0
Prove that (know this proof):
U, H, p, V, T
Relation between
Cp and CV
State
Independent of path
State vs. Path
Functions
Important in liquefaction of gases
dU is an exact differentia

Tanks
Ideal solutions have similar
equations as mixes of gases
Column/tank
semipermeable membrane
miscible
interactions between A and B molecules is same as
average interactions A-A and B-B
partially miscible
van't Hoff equation
make sure you know the pro

q=0
w < 0; U < 0
KE of molecules drop
adiabatic expansion
If system changes volume, the internal
energy is not equal to the heat supplied
Thus, T < 0
The enthalpy describes the heat supplied
for constant pressure processes
Adiabatic changes
Justification

Frictionless piston
Cannot measure heat directly
Gives a connection between U and T
Definition
Extensive property
Expansion work
partial derivative
constant over small T
Free expansion (into vacuum)
w=0
molar heat capacity, CV,m (J K-1 mol-1)
specific hea

Stationary states of matter
Energy differences
Thermodynamics
Patterns of energy change
Isochoric, V = 0, w = 0, U = qV
Types of energy change
Isobaric, p = 0, U = q + w, H = qp
Adiabatic, q = 0, U = wad
System
Processes
Surroundings
Isothermal, U = 0, T

all irreversible reactions are spontaneous and have a
total entropy change which is greater than zero
tell us what's thermodynamically
permissible
1st vs. 2nd law
reversible
U and H
Universe is a closed system
isothermal expansion
What drives processes fo

T=0K
Thermal motion quenched
Arrangement of atoms not
taken into account
Nernst Heat Theorem
reversibility, dG = 0
If the entropy of every element in its most stable
state at T = 0 is taken as zero, then every substance
has a positive entropy which at T =

Basics
ideal solutions obey exactly;
solvent's point of view
non-reacting subtances
Raoult's Law
Simple Mixtures
Chemical Potentials
of Liquids
Molecular interpretation
binary systems
energetics of mixing
Only obey law when solute is
very dilute
Ideal dil

results from surface tension
solvent creeps up tube
First order
Ehrenfest Classification
of Phase Transitions
meniscus has variability in pressure
hydrostatic equilibrium obtained when external
pressure balanced by p - 2/r + gh
Capillary rise
Second order

phase trans: reversible
transfer of heat is reversible
phases are in equilibrium
Phase transitions
Measurement of Entropy
Most solvents
N2 example
Trouton's Rule
Debye extrapolation
H2O case
CH4 case
59-240
Lecture 11
Entropy Changes and Processes
See Lec

effective pressure of a real gas
FET
TDE
is the fugacity coefficient
Z = 1, = 1, f = p
Fundamental Equation
of Thermodynamics (U)
perfect or low p gas
ThDef
Fugacity, f
Z < 1, < 1, f < p, <
escape tendency lessened
Maxwell relation
real intermediate p g

Low pressure:
like a perfect gas
Flat inflection: 2 derivatives equal to zero
critical constants are expressed in terms
of vdW coefficients
Molecular Interactions
Principle of
Corresponding States
Intermediate pressure:
Attractive forces
High pressure:
Re

Relative Mean Speed
Low density
Collision Frequency
Relative Speeds
High compressibility
Properties of gases
Mean Free Path
External pressure contains a gas
Gases diffuse into one another
- they mix homogeneously
Atoms/molecules undergo random
never-endin

Gas
Phases of Matter
Solid
Thermal Equilibrium
Brownian motion
Thermometer
Kelvin vs. Celsius
Liquid
mean speed increases with increasing T
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
molecules widely spread
Temperature vs. Heat
59-240
Lecture 1
Intro to Physical Chemis

Robert Hooke's J-tubes
Partial Pressure
Mole fractions
Boyle's Law
Dalton's Mixtures of Gases
p vs. V plots & isotherms
Rationalizing this law
Introduction to partial derivatives
Units
Relationship to k
Surface of States
Gas Constant, R
59-240
Lecture 2
T

Answer Key for Atkins - 7th Edition - B problems only
Up to end of Lecture 17 - November 15, 2005
Keep looking for updated versions of this file - further updates will be included
Lecture 1
1.4
1.6
1.7
1.9
1.10
830 kPa
(a) 8.04 x 102 Torr (b) 1.07 bar
92.

Answer Key for Atkins - 8th Edition - A problems only & 7th edition - B problems only
Up to end of Lecture 9 - October 10, 2007 Minor edit: 1.18 Version 2
Keep looking for updated versions of this file - further updates will be included
For some unknown r

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59-240 Introductory Physical Chemistry I
University of Windsor (R.W. Schurko)
Mid-Term #2
November 12, 2003, 8:30 - 9:20 a.m.
Instructions:
There are five questions in total. Complete the first question, and then complete three of the four
remaining quest

59-240 Introductory Physical Chemistry I
University of Windsor
Mid-Term #1
October 17, 2001 in Class, 9:30 - 10:20
Instructions:
There are five questions in total. Complete the first question, and then complete three of the four
remaining questions. Each