Western University (Ontario)  Also known as University of Western Ontario
Statistics
STATISTICS 1024A

Winter 2016
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 8
Producing Data: Sampling
Surveys
take a sample from a larger population
interview or obtain responses from every
unit in the sample
based on the sample results make
inferences about the larger population
Polls and the
Western University (Ontario)  Also known as University of Western Ontario
Statistics
STATISTICS 1024A

Winter 2016
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 10
Introducing Probability
Longrun Frequencies:
Tossing Heads with a Coin
10 tosses
0.600 heads
100 tosses
0.530 heads
more coins
1000 tosses
0.508 heads
10000 tosses
0.496 heads
Coin toss
The result of any single
Western University (Ontario)  Also known as University of Western Ontario
Statistics
STATISTICS 1024A

Winter 2016
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 8
Producing Data: Sampling
Population, Sample and Sampling Design
The population is the
entire group of individuals
that we want information
about
The sample is part of the
population we examine in
order to gather
inform
Western University (Ontario)  Also known as University of Western Ontario
Statistics
STATISTICS 1024A

Winter 2016
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 10
Introducing Probability
Meaning of a probability
We have several ways of defining a probability, and this has consequences on
its intuitive meaning.
Theoretical probability
From understanding the phenomenon and symmet
Western University (Ontario)  Also known as University of Western Ontario
Statistics
STATISTICS 1024A

Winter 2016
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 9
Producing Data: Experiments
An Observational Study
four French horn students
in the Faculty of Music
each played an open
note (a G) for as long as
they could
the time in seconds that
they held the note was
recorded
th
Western University (Ontario)  Also known as University of Western Ontario
Statistics
STATISTICS 1024A

Winter 2016
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 12
General Rules of Probability
Two events are disjoint if they
have no outcomes in common
Events A
and B are
disjoint.
and can never happen together.
Events A and
B are NOT
disjoint.
If you flip a coin once, it may turn o
Western University (Ontario)  Also known as University of Western Ontario
Statistics
STATISTICS 1024A

Winter 2016
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 5
Regression
Lurking variables
A lurking variable is a variable not included in the study design that
does have an effect on the variables studied.
Lurking variables can falsely suggest a relationship.
What is the lurking
Western University (Ontario)  Also known as University of Western Ontario
Statistics
STATISTICS 1024A

Winter 2016
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 5
Regression
Data : Radioactive Waste and the
Columbia River
County
or city
Umatilla
Morrow
Gilliam
Sherman
Wasco
Hood River
Portland
Columbia
Clatsop
Exposure Cancer
Index
Mortality
2.49
2.57
3.41
1.25
1.62
3.83
11.64
6.4
Western University (Ontario)  Also known as University of Western Ontario
Statistics
STATISTICS 1024A

Winter 2016
Statistical Science 1024
Chapter 6
TwoWay Tables
Categorical Variables
Review: Categorical variables place individuals into
one of several groups or categories.
The values of a categorical variable are labels for the
different categories.
The distribu